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A&P Chap 3 Key Words

TermDefinition
Active transport Process by which solute molecules are transported across a membrane against a concentration gradient, from an area of low concentration to one of high concentration
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Chemical compound consisting of one molecule of adenine, one of ribose, and three of phosphoric acid. This is the high-energy fuel a cell requires to function
Anaphase Phase 4 in mitosis
Anoxia A Lack of oxygen to cellular structures
Atrophy Wasting away of tissue
Benign Nonmalignant
Biomarkers A normal substance found in the blood or tissue in small amounts
Cancer The presence of a malignant tumor, which may affect all body parts
Cell membrane Structure that encloses the cell; also known as plasma membrane
Centrioles Two cylindrical organelles found near the nucleus in a tiny body called the centrosome; they are perpendicular to each other
Centrosome Tiny area near the nucleus of an animal cell; it contains two cylindrical structures called centrioles
Chromatid Each strand of replicable chromosome
Chromatin DNA and protein material in a loose and diffuse State; during mitosis chromatin condenses to form the chromosomes
Chromosome Nuclear material that determines hereditary characteristics
Cilia Tiny hair-like projections of protoplasm that extend from the cell surface and help move things along they may also work like a filter
Cytoplasm Protoplasm of the cell body, excluding the nucleus
Cytoskeleton Internal framework of the cell consisting of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
Diffusion Molecules move from higher concentration to lower concentration
Dysplasia Any abnormal development of tissues or organs
Endoplasmic reticulum Transport system of a cell; can be smooth or rough
Equilibrium A state of balance
Filteration Movement of water and particles across a semipermeable membrane by a mechanical force such as blood pressure
Flagella Long, hairlike projections from the cell membrane found on sperm
Golgi apparatus A membranous Network that resembles a stack of pancakes; it stores and packages secretions to be secreted by the cell
Hyperplasia Excessive proliferation of normal cells
Hypertonic solution A solution in which water molecules are moving out of a cell, causing it to shrink
Hypertrophy An increase in the size of a muscle cell
Hypertonic solution A solution in which water molecules are moving into a cell, causing it to swell
Hypoxia Decreased blood flow to Cellular structures
Interphase The resting phase in the process of mitosis
Isotonic solution A solution in which movement of water molecules into and out of a cell is the same
Lysosome Cytoplasmic organelle containing digestive enzymes
Meiosis Cell division of gametes or cells; reduces the number of chromosomes
Metaphase Phase 3 in the process of mitosis; nuclear membrane disappears
Metastasis Transfer of malignant cells from an original site to a distant one through the circulatory system or lymph vessels
Mitochondria Organelle that supplies energy to the cell
Mitosis Cell division involving two distant processes: (1) mitosis, the exact duplication of the nucleus to form two identical nuclei; and (2) cytoplasmic division. After nuclear division, the cytoplasm is divided into two approximately equal parts
Necrosis Cell death
Neoplasia Uncontrolled growth pattern in a cell; my result in a neoplasm
An orderly process by which cells intentionally die. The term is used interchangeably with the term program cell death (PCD)
Neoplasm
A tumor; can be benign or malignant
Nuclear membrane Double-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Nucleolus Small spherical structure within the cell nucleus
Nucleoplasm Protoplasm of the nucleus; also called nuclear sap or karyolymph
Nucleus Poor or center of a cell containing large quantities of DNA; also the center of an atom
Organelle Microscopic structure within the cell having a special function or capacity
Osmosis Passage of fluid through a membrane
Osmotic pressure The pressure exerted by the flow of water through a semi permeable membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of solute
Papilloma A type of tumor of the epithelial tissue; also known as a wart
Passive transport The process of moving materials across a cell membrane without using energy, such as diffusion, osmosis, or filtration
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs that contain oxidate enzymes
Phagocytosis Ingestion of foreign or other particles by certain cells
Pinocytic vesicle Formed by having the cell membrane fold inward to form a pocket
Pinocytosis Process of engulfing large molecules in solution and taking them into a cell
Prophase Phase 2 in the process of mitosis
Protoplasm An aqueous solution of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and inorganic salts surrounded by a cell membrane
Replication Occurs when an exact copy of each nuclear chromosome is made during the early part of the first stage of mitosis (early interphase)
Ribosome Submicroscopic particle attached to endoplasmic reticulum; site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of a cell
Solutes Dissolved substances in a solution
Telophase Final stage in the mitosis process
Tumor Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of a cell
Vacuole Clear space in cell
Wart A type of tumor of epithelial tissue; also known as papilloma
Created by: Staceyleeann1972