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A&P Chap 2 Key Words

Acid Chemical compound that ionizes to form hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution
Alkali A substance that, when dissolved in water, Island izes into negatively charged hydroxide (OH) ions and positively charged ions of a metal
Amino acids Small molecular units that make up protein molecules
Atom Smallest piece of an element
Base Chemical compound yielding hydroxyl ions (OH) in an aqueous solution, which will react with acid to form a salt and water
Buffer A compound that maintains the chemical balance in a living organism
Carbohydrate An organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen as sugar or starch
Chemical bond Bond formed when atoms share or combine their electrons with atoms of other elements
Chemistry Study of the structure of matter and the composition of substances, their properties, and their chemical reactions
Cholesterol A steroid normally synthesized in the liver and also ingested in egg yolks, animal fats, and tissues
Compounds Elements combined in definite proportion by weight to form a new substance
Covalent bond Type of bond in which the atoms share electrons to fill the outermost shell of levels
Dehydrated An abnormal inflation of body fluids
Dehydration synthesis Occurs when water is removed from a molecule; the molecule fuses together and a new substance is formed during the anabolic process
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleic acid containing the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; genetic material
Disaccharide Double sugar
Electrolytes Electrically charged particles that help determine fluid and acid-base balance
Electron A subatomic particle of an atom that is arranged around the nucleus in orbital zones or electron shells. An electron has a negative (-) charge.
Element Made up of like atoms; substance that can neither be created nor destroyed
Energy Ability to do work
Enzymes Organic Catalyst that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction
Extracellular fluid Fluid outside of a cell
Fat Compound made up of glycerol and fatty acids
Glycogen Polysaccharide formed and stored largely in the liver
Hydrogen bond Heels together by forming a bridge between the negative oxygen atom of one water molecule and positive hydrogen atom of another molecule
Hydrolysis Occurs when water is added to the molecule to break down larger molecules in a catabolic reaction
Hydroxide One atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
Interstitial fluid Another name for lymph fluid; fluid between the tissue
Intracellular fluid Fluid within the cell
Ion An electrically charged atom
Ionic bond Bond in which one atom gives up an electron to another atom
Isotopes Atoms of a specific element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Kinetic energy Work resulting in motion
Lipid Fatty compound
Matter Anything that has weight and occupies space
Molecule The smallest unit of a compound that still has the properties of the compound
Monosaccharide Simple sugar; glucose
Multicellular Many celled
Neutralization Process in which an acid and a base combine to form a salt and water
Neutron A subatomic particle of an atom that, with a proton, makes up the nucleus of the atom; a neutron has no electric charge
Nucleic acid Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus (i.e., DNA, RNA)
Organic catalyst A substance that affects the rate of speed of a chemical reaction without itself being changed
Organic compound Compound that contains the element carbon
pH scale A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Phospholipids Fats that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus
Polysaccharide A complex sugar
Potential energy Energy stored in cells waiting to be released
Protein Containing the elements of carbon; hydrogen; oxygen; nitrogen and most times, phosphorus and sulfur. Protein is necessary to build and repair body tissue.
Protein synthesis Production of protein by the cells that are essential to life
Proton A subatomic particle of an atom; with neutrons, it makes up the nucleus of the atom. The proton has a positive (+) charge
Radioactive Capable of emitting energy in the form of radiation
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Type of nucleic acid
Steroids Lipids or fats that contain cholesterol
Triglycerides Also called fats consist of glycerol and fatty acids, make up 95% of fats in the human body
Created by: Staceyleeann1972