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Biology Ch. 8

TermDefinition
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Compound used by cells to store and release energy
Heterotroph Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
Autotroph Organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer.
Photosynthesis Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
Pigment Light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy.
Chlorophyll Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Thylakoid Sac-like photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts.
Stroma Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids.
NADP+ Carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules. (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
Light-Dependent Reactions Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH.
Light-Independent Reactions Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin Cycle.
Photosystem Cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoid.
Electron Transport Chain Series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
ATP Synthase Cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it.
Calvin Cycle Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar.
Created by: rhacker