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Blood vessels+lymph.

Blood vessels and lymphatics introduction.

What is included in the tunica interna (intima)? Endothelium and connective tissue.
What is included in the tunica media? Muscle and connective tissue.
What is included in the tunica externa (adventitia)? Thick layer of connective tissue.
What lines the tunica interna? Lined by specialized simple squamous epithelium called the endothelium.
What does endothelium release and what does it do? Releases endothelins that constrict the smooth muscle within the walls of the vessel to increase blood pressure.
What is the function of the basal lamina? Effectively binds the endothelium to the connective tissue.
What do large arteries also have? A distinct layer of elastic fibres known as the internal elastic membrane at the boundary with the tunica media.
What is the function of the internal elastic membrane in larger arteries? It provides the structure while allowing the vessel to stretch.
How does the tunica media in veins compare to in arteries? It is the thickest layer in arteries and it is much thicker in arteries than it is veins.
What is the tunica media composed of? Concentric layers of helically arranged smooth muscle cells.
What is the function of elastic fibres in the tunica media? To support the muscle cells.
What is vasoconstriction? Contraction of the circular muscles in the tunica media.
What is vasodilation? Relaxation of the circular muscles in the tunica media.
What is the tunica externa? A sheath of longitudinally orientated connective tissue composed primarily of collagen (type 1) fibres.
How does the tunica externa in veins compare to in arteries? This is normally the thickest in veins and may be thicker than the tunica media of some larger arteries.
What are the large arteries mainly composed of? Elastic tissue.
How do the large arteries maintain blood pressure? They expand during systole, while elastic recoil during diastole helps drive blood onwards.
What is the structure of muscular arteries? Have a relatively thick layer of circular smooth muscle in their tunica media.
What is the function of muscular arteries? Control distribution of blood to regions and organs.
How do muscular arteries carry out their function? They regulate blood flow by constriction or relaxation of their walls.
How do muscular arteries prevent a haemorrhage? By contracting.
Can muscular arteries accommodate an increase in diameter? Yes.
What are the arteries from the top of the arm to the bottom? Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial and then Radial and Ulnar.
Where do the radial and ulnar arteries lead to in the hand? In the hand, the deep and superficial palmar arches are derived from both the radial and ulnar arteries.
What does arterial anastomosis ensure? Ensures supply to the hand and fingers in any position of the upper limb.
What is an anastomoses? A communication between two blood vessels without an intervening capillary network.
What are the three descending large arteries of the trunk? Descending thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta and common iliac artery.
Where does the femoral artery lie? In the groin, the femoral artery lies with its vein medially, and the femoral nerve laterally.
When are the relations between the different vessels in the groin important? When taking blood or inserting arterial cannulae.
What are the descending lower limb arteries above the knee? (Aorta), common iliac, internal iliac, external iliac, (common) femoral, profunda femoris, (superficial) femoral and popliteal.
What are the descending lower limb arteries below the knee? Popliteal, anterior tibial, tibio-peroneal trunk, peroneal and posterior tibial.
Why is smooth muscle present in the media of all arteries? The elements of control over distribution and flow remain crucial.
What defines an arteriole? Arteries less than 0.5mm in diameter.
What is the structure of a metarteriole? Same diameter as capillaries, but with one layer of smooth muscle cells in their walls.
What is the structure of capillaries? Tube of endothelium only supported by basal lamina. No smooth muscle on their walls.
What is the function of capillaries? Allow exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and hormones between cells/interstitial fluid and blood.
How do capillaries allow exchange? The basal lamina splits to enclose pericytes.
What regulates blood flow through the capillary? The pre-capillary sphincter.
How are veins usually classified? According to size; the smallest are venules.
What is the structure of venules? The media is thin, with only a few smooth muscle fibres.
What do venules allow the passage of? Leukocytes can pass through the walls of venules (diapedesis) and escape into surrounding connective tissue.
What is the structure of the valves in the venules? Two valve leaflets can be seen in the lumen arising from the intima and covered by endothelium.
How do the valves in the venules work? When the blood pressure proximal to the leaflets is greater than that distal to them they close, preventing backflow.
What are venae comitantes? A vein that is paired with the sides of an artery. The pulsation of the artery therefore aids venous return to the heart.
How does a thrombus form? Plaques of atheroma may form within arteries and lead to the formation of thrombus (blood clot) and vascular occlusion.
What are deep veins? Accompany the limb arteries, which are situated deeply and have the same names as the arteries.
What are superficial veins? Lie immediately under the skin.
What are the superficial veins in the lower limbs? The Great (Long) Saphenous Vein and the Small (Short) Saphenous Vein.
What is the function of perforating veins? To connect deep and superficial veins.
What is the direction of blood flow in veins? Venous flow is from superficial to deep veins, due to valves in perforating veins.
What causes varicose veins? Incompetency of the valves.
What factors help venous return to the heart against gravity? The valves inside the veins, contraction of muscles, arterial pulsation and negative intrathoracic pressure.
What are superficial veins in the upper limbs used for? Phlebotomy.
Define phlebotomy. The surgical opening or puncture of a vein in order to remove blood or to infuse fluids.
Which veins in the upper limb can be used for phlebotomy? The cephalic, the basilic and median cubital veins.
Why must care be taken when performing phlebotomy in the upper arm? Not to puncture the brachial artery or median nerve posteriorly.
What is the function of the vena cava? Drains the venous blood of the head, neck and upper limbs to the right atrium.
What does the azygos vein do? Drains the venous blood of the thoracic wall to the superior vena cava.
What are the thoracic veins? Superior vena cava, azygous vein and inferior vena cava.
Where does venous blood from the GI tract and the spleen go? Into the (Hepatic) Portal Vein, which takes the venous blood through the liver before it joins the inferior vena cava.
What is the vasa vasorum? The network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries.
What is the lymphatic system part of? The immune system of the body.
What is the lymphatic system formed of? Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen and intestinal wall.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? Helps veins to remove the interstitial fluid, which is then called lymph.
How is lymph formed? Interstitial fluid is absorbed by lymph capillaries.
What is the structure of lymph capillaries? Thin-walled, endothelial tubes.
What type of lymph vessels are associated with veins? Superficial lymph nodes.
What type of lymph vessels are related to arteries? Deep lymph nodes.
What does drainage in the lymphatic system depend on? Drainage depends upon adjacent muscle activity and valves prevent backflow.
What disease can spread in the lymph nodes? Tumour may well spread in the lymphatics and seed in the nodes.
What is the position of the inguinal lymph node? Superficial, inferior to the inguinal ligament and alongside the great saphenous vein in the groin.
What is the position of the deep inguinal lymph node? Alongside the femoral vein.
What drains into the inguinal lymph nodes? Lower limb and buttock; external genitalia; lower back and abdominal wall below umbilicus.
Where does the superficial inguinal node drain into? Into the deep inguinal nodes.
What is the position of the axillary lymph nodes? Grouped in the axilla related to the axillary vein and artery; lateral to, deep to or medial to pectoralis.
What drains into the axillary lymph nodes? Upper limb, anterior and posterior thoracic walls, plus upper abdominal wall above umbilicus (breast).
What is the position of the cervical lymph nodes? Superficial: under jaw; over parotid; behind ear; occipital. Deep: alongside internal jugular vein (jugulo-digastric; jugulo-omohyoid).
What drains into the cervical lymph nodes? The head and neck structures.
Which lymph nodes communicate with axillary and thoracic nodes? Inferior deep cervical nodes.
Where does all lymph drain into? Drained by lymph vessels that eventually return to the lymph to the venous system.
What is the largest lymph vessel? The Thoracic Duct.
What is the position of the thoracic duct? Opens at the junction of the left subclavian and internal jugular veins.
Created by: robertspedding