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Endocrine Disorders

complex syndrome involving metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity and growth retardation hypopituatarism
enlargement of thyroid gland goitre
thyroid hormone secretion insufficient for metabolic needs, thyroid gland enlarges to compensate, & overcome mild - moderate impairment simple goitre
affects regional groups of people where soil and food iodine are low enemic goitre
developing brain major target, crosses blood-brain barrier in foetal development, affects growth & development, metabolism, body temperature and heart rate triiodothyronine (t3)
regulates many of the body's metabolic functions, basal metabolic rate can increase by 60-100% when large amounts of T4 present, principle function to stimulate O2 consumption, generates body heat thyroxine (t4)
metabolic imbalance due to increased secretion of T4 and T3 stimulating protein, lipid and carb metabolism, Hyperthyroidism
Autoimmune disorder increasing t4 production manifesting as hyper-metabolism, toxic goitre, exopthalmos graves disease
extreme & life threatening form of graves disease, hyperthermia 41C<, tachycardia, heart failure, delirium, coma thyroid storm (thyrotoxic crisis)
hypothalamic, pituatary or thyroid insufficiency,/resistance to thyroid hormone. hypothyroidism
autoantibodies destroy thyroid gland tissue, can lead to goitre chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimotos thyroiditis)
severe adult hypothyroidism: non pitting oedema seen in facial puffiness and thick tongue Myxedema
untreated congenital hypothyroidism; thyroid gland non-funcitonal or absent cretinism
characteristic orange-peel skin with oedematous appearance pretibial myxedema
acute hypothyroidism causing hypotension, hypoglycaemia, hypothermia and LoC Myxedema coma
excessive glucocorticoids due to tumore or large amounts of glucorticoids administered in chronic inflammatory conditions cushing syndrome
deficiency in adrenocortical secretions addisons disease
secretes digestive juices acini
secretes hormones into blood islets of langerhans
secretes insulin and amylin beta cells
secretes glucagon alpha cells
promote glucose uptake by target cells & glucose storage, prevents fat & glycogen breakdown, inhibits gluconeogenesis insulin
maintains BGL between meals/fasting, exerts main action in liver, increases plasma glucose via glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis glucagon
90-95% of sufferers, more common in younger people but can occur at any age Type 1A immune-mediated diabetes mellitus
much less common, no autoimmune involvement Type 1B idiopathic diabetes mellitus
hyperglycaemia with insulin resistance- no destruction of beta cells Type 2 diabetes mellitus
glucose intolerance during pregnancy of women with no history of diabetes gestational diabetes
excessive hunger polyphagia
excessive thirst polydipsia
excessive urination polyuria
sudden onset, cool, pale moist skin, normal RR, breath odour, weak rapid pulse, uncoordinated headache, irritable, poor conc. seizures hypoglycaemia
slower onset, warm, feverish, red & dry skin, deep and rapid breathing, possible kussmaul breathing, possible acetone breath, tachycardic, nausea & vomiting, abdo pain, hypotension, decreased LoC hyperglycaemia
insulin inhibits lipolysis, & release of free fatty acids, insufficient insulin -> hyperglycaemia and lipid mobilisation -> ketosis occurs fatty acids released and converted to ketones, diabetic ketoacidosis
hyperglycaemia pulling water from body cells (incl brain) hyperglycaemia hyperosmolar state
Kussmaul respiration, nausea & vomiting, abdo pain, fatigue, thirst, sweet smelling breath, confusion, drowsiness, hypotension, tachycardia Symptoms of DKA
Usually present dehydrated with stupor or in coma, unconscious, polyuria (weeks), profound dehydration, hypotension (later), tachycardia symptoms of HHS
disorder of water metabolism; deficient ADH secretion or renal resistance to ADH diabetes insipidus
deficiency of ADH acute onset neurogenic diabetes insipidus
resistance of renal tubules to ADH nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
caused by excessive fluid intake, primary polydipsia, psychogenic diabetes insipidus
metformin (glucophage), chloropropamide, Glycburide (diabeta), Glipizide (glucotriol) Oral meds for type 2 diabetes
actrapid (humalog/novalog), long acting (levemir/lantus), premixed (regular insulin + NPH) Insulin meds for type 1 diabetes
Created by: 1092422624234171



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