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LifeSpan midterm

Chapters 1-8

__________ studies patterns of growth, change, and stability from conception through the end of life. Lifespan development
The primary topics of lifespan development research? Cognitive, physical, and personality development
The financial crisis of the 2010s will exert what type of effect on the cohort of children growing up during this period? history-graded influences
Shalise believes that child development is a process of continuous change. Her classmate Evan says that development follows a pattern of discontinuous change. Who is correct? Both: Shalise and Evan A child’s development is marked by both continuous and discontinuous change.
Erikson’s _____________ ____________ theory was created as an alternative psychodynamic view emphasizing social interaction with other people. psychosocial development
What developmental theorist is known for operant conditioning? skinner
Which perspective emphasizes how people internally represent and think about the world? Cognitive perspective
Which perspective contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives? Humanistic perspective
What is the key factor guiding developmental perspectives that consider the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds? Contextual factors
Which perspective seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance? Evolutionary perspective
Some lifespan developmentalists use a(n) ____________ approach, drawing on several perspectives. eclectic
A(n) ____________ is a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested. hypothesis
____________ research seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists. Correlational
Alan has decided to conduct a naturalistic observation of children and friendships. Which location would produce the most accurate results? A playground
In an experiment, the ____________ is exposed to the treatment variable being studied; the ____________ is not. treatment group/control group
Each human parent contributes ______________ to the developing zygote one of each pair of 23 chromosomes
When a cluster of cells in the ovum splits off within the first two weeks after fertilization and forms two identical zygotes, the result is __________. monozygotic twins
The __________ pair of chromosomes determines the sex of the child 23rd
Most traits are governed by a combination of gene pairs rather than a single pair of genes. This is called __________. polygenic inheritance
______________ studies the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics. Behavioral genetics
The presence of an extra X chromosome in male babies produces ______________, a disease characterized by genetic abnormalities. Klinefelter’s syndrome
The noninvasive prenatal testing procedure that is commonly used to determine the size and shape of the baby and to monitor developmental patterns is called __________. ultrasound sonography
A person’s ______________, defined as enduring patterns of arousal and emotionality in an individual, has strong a genetic basis, but it can be influenced by environmental factors such as family traits and behaviors. temperament
The most informative way that researchers can learn about the different effects of nature and nurture on human development is through studies of __________. identical twins raised separately
The following is an environmental factor that may influence the intelligence of a child? friendships with intelligent peers
Noticing that their baby daughter seems to love singing and dancing, her nonmusical parent’s stream music into the house constantly and purchase a piano and child-sized guitar. This is an example of __________. genes influencing the environment
The joining of sperm and ovum to create the single-celled zygote from which life begins is referred to as __________. fertilization
During the ______________ stage of prenatal development, the fertilized egg, or blastocyst, attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. germinal
In the procedure known as ______________, a man’s sperm is used to fertilize a woman’s ova in a laboratory. in vitro fertilization
An environmental agent such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produces a birth defect is called a(n) __________. teratogen
The use of a(n) ______________, which is designed to increase the size of the opening of the vagina, has fallen into disfavor in recent years and is diminishing in frequency. episiotomy
______________ is a childbirth technique based on the principle that giving birth should be as natural as possible and should not involve the use of medications or medical interventions. The Bradley Method
A baby who is still unborn two weeks after the mother’s due date is considered a ______________ infant. postmature
One factor in the increased reliance on Cesarean delivery in the United States is __________. the greater use of fetal heart monitors
In the United States, which of the following is a major reason for the high rate of infant mortality in African American births compared with White births? higher rates of poverty
One of the major body rhythms, the degree of awareness to both internal and external stimulation, is known as an infant’s ______________. state
By the time children reach age ______, their proportions are similar to those of adults. 6
The following hormones play important roles in puberty? Adrogen, leptin, and estrogen
Exercise during the period of middle adulthood can help to reduce ______________ , the thinning of the bones, that occurs in later life. osteoporosis
The method of defining how old a person is taking into account a person’s physical and psychological well-being is called ______________. functional age
____________ allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons. synaptic pruning
During the preschool years, __________ is completed in the hippocampus, an area of the brain associated with memory. myelination
________ are unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli. reflexes
Research has found that during middle childhood, __________ boys and girls have similar motor skills
By the end of the preschool years, most children show __________, which is a clear preference for using one hand over the other. handedness
Very young infants who are breast-fed are better able to distinguish their mothers through the sense of __________ than bottle-fed infants. smell
__________ is a particularly useful ability, helping babies as young as six months to acknowledge heights and avoid falls. depth perception
Severe and early loss of hearing can impair ________ thinking. abstract
The virtually universal decline in near vision in middle adulthood is called ______________. presbyopia
According to the peripheral slowing hypothesis, the increased reaction time of older people is attributable to changes in the ______________. nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord
According to psychologists Arnold Lazarus and Susan Folkman, the primary appraisal stage of dealing with stress is focused on ______________. assessing the implications of a potentially stress-inducing event
One recent educational trend that appears to be increasing stress among school-age children is ______________. an increased emphasis on testing and homework
According to current research, which of the following is an indirect effect of stress? Failure to exercise regularly
Unconscious strategies to distort or deny the seriousness of a potentially stressful situation or to insulate oneself from feeling its effects are called ______________. defensive coping
A woman stressfully juggling a job, a college , and a child at home arranges a better sch w/ boss, calls 2 of her prof to change the due dates on major course assignments, and asks her day care provider for extended hours of care two evenings per week. problem-focused coping
Anorexia nervosa is a severe disorder in which ______________. individuals refuse to eat
The most common STI, the human papilloma virus (HPV), can produce ______________. genital warts
Osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, is often caused by a lack of ______________ in the diet. calcium
The following chronic diseases begins to routinely affect people in middle adulthood? type 2 diabetes
The Type B behavior pattern is characterized by ______________ patience
______________ is defined as a progressive brain disorder that produces memory loss and confusion. Alzheimer’s disease
Which of the following statements about breast feeding is true? Breast milk offers some immunity to childhood diseases.
Which of the following statements about sexuality in middle adulthood is true? For those who can—or choose to—enjoy it, sex contributes to wellness across the life span, a fact that applies to old age as well as to younger periods of life.
Which of the following 66-year-old women illustrates an environmental factor that may affect her susceptibility to serious illness ahead? Bess knows the risks of smoking but continues to smoke a pack a day.
It is estimated that between ______________ percent of elderly people do not have adequate nutrition in the United States. 15 and 50
Piaget believed that the basic building blocks of our understanding of the world are mental structures called ____________, organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental development. schemes
In substage 4 of the sensorimotor period, infants begin to use __________, in which they combine and coordinate several schemes to generate a single act or solve a problem. goal-directed behavior
The knowledge that develops in the preschool years that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects is called ____________. conservation
In middle childhood, children begin to apply __________ to solve concrete problems. logical operations
_____________ is reasoning that allows adolescents to use abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples. propositional thought
Critics of Piaget believe his timeline for the development of both __________ is too late. object permanence and conservation
Research shows that the progress of cognitive development cannot be understood without considering a child’s ____________. culture
Labouvie-Vief believes cognitive development continues beyond adolescence. Her theory of ___________ thought acknowledges that adult problems must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms. postformal
Perry found that students entering college tended to engage in ______________ thinking, regarding everything as either right or wrong and people as good or bad. dualistic
According to Schaie’s stages of cognitive development, young adults’ focus shifts from the future to the here-and-now as they enter the __________ stage. achieving
Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as the product of ____________. social interactions
According to Vygotsky, ______________ establish the institutions that promote development by providing opportunities for cognitive growth. culture and society
Vygotsky refers to the assistance or structuring provided by parents, teachers, or skilled peers as ____________. scaffolding
According to Vygotsky, cognitive development occurs when new information is presented by an adult or skilled peer within a child’s ____________. zone of proximal development
Vygotsky’s theory is sometimes criticized for overlooking how basic cognitive processes such as _________________ develop. attention and memory
____________ is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used. retrieval
Without conscious thought, children develop the ability to link together stimuli that occur simultaneously, thereby developing an understanding of concepts. This process is an example of ____________. automatization
According to the three-system model, it is in the ______________ that thoughtful, deliberate information processing first takes place. short-term memory
______________ are stimuli, such as words, images, smells, or sounds, that people use to search and locate information stored in long-term memory. retrieval cues
Which of the following summarizes the key principle of information processing theories of development? With age and practice, children’s thinking gradually becomes more sophisticated.
The increasing ability as children age to tune into certain stimuli while tuning out of others is the result of the increasing ______________ that comes with age. control of attention
In general, researchers believe that, compared to memory processing in adults, memory processing in young children is ______________. generally similar
Recent memory research among infants, children, and adults shows that _____________. the physical trace of a memory in the brain is relatively permanent across all ages
Antony repeats information that he wants to recall over and over until he can recite it from memory. This is an example of _____________. a memory control strategy
Arletta used to believe that she could simply look at a group of vocabulary words once and remember them. Now she realized that she has to practice them. This is evidence that Arletta has developed ______________ skills. metamemory
When questioned repeatedly, children are likely to describe with confidence events and situations that never happened. These descriptions are referred to as _____________. false memories
When questioning children for legal purposes, the accuracy of their recollections can be improved by _____________. using a neutral setting, not a courtroom or police office, for questioning
Compared with code-based approaches to reading instruction, whole-language approaches focus more on _____________. making context-based guesses about word meanings
Which of the following is a critical thinking skill? Weighing alternative solutions to given problems
One clear advantage of the information processing approach over the approaches of Piaget and Vygotsky is its ____________. reliance on precise concepts that can be tested by research
__________ are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences. semantics
When two-year-old Helena says, “My socks on,” rather than “I put on my socks,” she is using _____________. telegraphic speech
In the months spanning their third birthday, the number of ways children combine words and phrases to form sentences, known as ________, doubles each month. syntax
___________ is the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with other. pragmatics
Children’s understanding of their own use of language, referred to as _____________, is one of the most significant developments in middle childhood. metalinguistic awareness
The _______________ approach to language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning. learning theory
Chomsky’s analysis suggests that all the world’s languages share a similar underlying structure he calls universal grammar
According to the __________________ , language development comes about through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances. interactionist perspective
The proposition that language shapes and may even determine the ways people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world is known as the linguistic-relativity hypothesis
Unlike Whorf, Piaget believed that thinking shapes language.
Infant-directed speech is basically similar across cultures.
In infant-directed speech, parents tend to use twice as many _____________ with their daughters than with their sons. diminutives
The greater the ____________ children have been exposed to, the better they perform on a variety of measures of intellectual achievement at age three. number and variety of words
__________ is the educational approach that teaches English language learners solely in English. Immersion
Bilingual speakers show _______________ than students who speak only one language. greater cognitive flexibility and metalinguistic awareness
Which of the following is an important legacy left by Alfred Binet’s work on intelligence testing? a focus on linking intelligence with academic success
In the ______________, an orally administered test, young children may be asked questions about their everyday activities or asked to copy complex figures. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Which of the following is an advantage of group-administered tests over individually administered tests? They are more efficient and less expensive to administer.
A test is considered to have ______________ when it produces consistent results each time it is administered. reliability
When it comes to intelligence, some people say there is no substitute for experience. Which concept reflects this perspective? crystallized intelligence
One advantage of measures of information processing in infants, such as speed of processing and visual recognition memory, over developmental measures is that information processing assessments are better predictors of future IQ scores.
An assessment of a student’s knowledge of the Spanish language is an example of a(n) ______________ test. achievement
A language arts test that uses examples of bus and subway schedules to measure reading comprehension is likely to favor members of which group? students from urban communities
Schaie’s study of intelligence in older people found that, in general, as people age crystallized intelligence remains steady.
One problem with using cross-sectional studies to investigate intelligence across different ages is that results may be skewed by cohort effects.
According to the principles of ______________, children with special needs are taught in the regular classroom except in cases where their exceptionality would affect their learning. mainstreaming
With appropriate training, people with mild intellectual disability can function independently and hold jobs.
The largest group of people with intellectual disabilities have ______________ disabilities. mild
Research on giftedness has found that gifted people tend to be ______________ than their non-gifted peers. healthier
Shawna’s gifted and talented program permits her to move through the curriculum at her own pace and even to skip a grade, if she shows the ability to do so. Her program uses the ______________ approach. acceleration
Lifespan development examines patterns of growth, change, and _______________ in human behavior across the life span. stability
Developmentalists who study the effects of home schooling on academic performance are examining _________________ development. cognitive
Robin grew up in a public housing project in Chicago. Grant grew up at the same time in an affluent suburb of Chicago. When Robin and Grant meet in college, we can expect that in general they will share history-graded influences but differ in sociocultural-graded influences
Compared to young children, adults have a much harder time learning a new language. Researchers studying this phenomenon are mainly addressing which key issue in development? Critical versus sensitive periods
In the nature versus nurture discussion, the term nurture refers to environmental influences.
Proponents of which major theoretical perspective believe that behavior is largely motivated by subconscious inner forces and memories? Psychodynamic
Proponents of which major theoretical perspective believe that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment? behavioral
According to Piaget, human thought is arranged in organized mental patterns, called __________, that represent behaviors and actions. schemes
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of __________ ____________ between members of a culture. social interactions
The ____________ perspective identifies behaviors that are the result of genetic inheritance. evolutionary
The __________ is the process of posing and answering research questions using controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data. scientific method
____________ studies seek to identify whether an association or relationship exists between two factors. correlational
The strength and direction of a relationship between two factors is represented by a(n) ____________. correlation coefficient
____________ is designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge, whereas ____________ is meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems. Theoretical research/applied research
A __________ is the underlying combination of genetic material present (but outwardly invisible) in an organism. genotype
The field of __________ __________ studies the effects of heredity on psychological characteristics, such as personality and habits. behavioral genetics
__________ __________ is a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair. down syndrome
A(n) ______________occurs when pregnancy ends before the developing child is able to survive outside the mother’s womb miscarriage
_______________, defined as death within the first year of life, occurs in 6.17 out of 1,000 live births. infant mortality
One of the most important ways behavior becomes integrated is through the development of various body __________, which are repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior. rhythms
Secondary sex characteristics are the ____________ that do not involve the sex organs directly. visible signs of sexual maturity
Projections suggest that by 2050, people age 65 and over will account for nearly ____________ of the population. one quarter
During the preschool period, a child’s ______________ grow(s) faster than any other part of the body. brain
As children grow, the two halves of the brain become increasingly differentiated and specialized in a process called ________________. lateralization
The infant’s tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek is known as the ________________ reflex. rooting
Advances in gross motor skills are related to _______________ in areas of the brain related to balance and coordination. brain development and myelination of neurons
_________________ is an example of a fine motor skill that infants typically master within the first year. Picking up small objects
he _____________ approach to perception considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated. multimodal
The ability of young infants to make fine discriminations between sounds is particularly important in the development of the ability to understand _____________. language
______________ is the field that studies the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors. Psychoneuroimmunology
Obesity is defined as weight greater than ______________ percent above the average for a given height. 20
Physical declines brought about by an individual’s behavioral choices or environmental factors are referred to as ______________ aging. secondary
Which of the following is a psychological factor in determining a person’s susceptibility to serious illness as aging occurs? A sense of control over one’s living environment
According to Piaget, ___________ is the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking. assimilation
Piaget believed the major achievement of the final substage in the sensorimotor stage is ____________. symbolic thought
One hallmark of the preoperational stage is _____________, thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others. egocentric thought
Critics of Piaget note that his theory of cognitive development overlooks the _________________ systems that are present from early infancy. sensory and perceptual
Research suggests Piaget may have erred in asserting that preschoolers have little understanding of ___________, as shown by their inability to grasp conservation and reversibility. numbers
____________ thinking takes into account that issues are not always clear-cut, and makes use of argument, counterargument, and debate. dialectical
Schaie’s final stage of cognitive development, the __________ stage, occurs in late adulthood as people focus on tasks that have personal meaning. reintegrative
Vygotsky believed that societal expectations about __________ play a role in how children come to understand the world. gender
According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost but not fully perform a task independently (but can do so with assistance), is the child’s __________. zone of proximal development
According to the three-system model, the ______________ is the initial process by which information is very briefly held before further processing. sensory store
The key difference between information processing and Piagetian approaches is that information processing approaches focus on ______________. quantitative rather than qualitative changes
Four-year-old Carla is engaged in playing with a toy truck, while her 10-year-old brother Vincent is wrapped up in a book. The truck and the book are said to be different ______________ stimuli for each child. attention-holding
As they grow older, children begin to recall memories in terms of ______________, which are general representations in memory of a sequence or series of events. scripts
Compared with whole-language approaches to reading instruction, code-based approaches focus more on ______________. sounding out letters and words to discover their meaning
Which of the following is a critical thinking skill? identifying and questioning assumptions in statements
The basic sounds of language that can be combined to produce words and sentences are called ___________. phonemes
A mother who rewards a child for making a sound that approximates ma is an example of which perspective on language acquisition? learning theory approach
The ______________ approach to language acquisition posits that children are born with the innate capacity to use language, which emerges as they mature. nativist
That the course of language development depends on the language to which a child has been exposed and the reinforcement the child receives for using language in a specific way is a key feature of the __________________ on language acquisition. interactionist perspective
The ___________________ hypothesis suggests that language provides categories that help children construct perceptions of people and events in their surroundings. linguistic-relativity
Vygotsky believed that by age 2, the development of thought and language have become ____________. interdependent
The use of rising pitch, singsong intonation, repetitive sounds, and short, simple sentences are all characteristics of ____________. infant-directed speech
One characteristic of Alfred Binet’s classic work on intelligence testing that has survived to the present day is a pragmatic rather than theoretical approach to measuring intelligence.
The process by which older people focus on particular areas of strength to compensate for declines in other areas is called ____________. selective optimization
According to professional classifications, an intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.
Created by: vtlove116