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Biology vocab

Biology The scientific study of life Includes living and non-living things
Cells Smallest unit of an organism that can be considered alive
Reproduction The production of new organisms
Heterotrophs Get energy by eating food
Autotrophs Get energy by making their own food
Metabolism The combined reaction of breaking down materials and building materials
Homeostasis Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal condition, or environment. Literally means "staying the same"
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) The instructions for reproducing and operating the individual, encoded in a chemical language
Evolution Change in organisms over time
Prokaryote Any of the typical unicellular microorganisms that lack a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryote The largest cells, but still microscopic Have a nucleus and DNA, which is membrane-bound How many organelles that perform different functions.
Specialization Each cell has a specific job Cells are more efficient
Organism A living thing
Organ System Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Tissues Group of cells with a common structure and function
Organ A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
Organelle Structures that perform specific functions within the cells
Protists Single-celled Eukaryotes that are Animal -like
Cell Membrane The protective layer that covers the cell's surface, acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and outside environment
Nucleus Control center of the cell A membrane-bound organelle that contains DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Cell theory All organisms are made of one or more cells The cell is the basic unit of all living things All cells come from existing cells
Cytoplasm The fluid and contents of a cell
Cell Wall A rigid structure that gives support to the cell ~In plant and fungi cells ~Not in animal cells ~Outside of the cell membrane
Cytoskeleton A web of proteins in the cytoplasm Made of proteins Keeps the cells from collapsing, acts as the muscle and skeleton
Ribosomes The organelle in which amino acids are hooked together to make proteins They are made inside the nucleus, in the nucleolus
Endoplasmic Reticulum ~The organelle that makes lipids ~Internal delivery of the cell ~Packages proteins for the Golgi Complex
Nucleolus Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
Lysosomes Digests excess or worn-out cell parts, food particles and invading viruses or bacteria
Vacuoles A vesicle In plant and fungi cells Stores water and other liquids
Vesicle A small sac that surrounds material to be moved inside or out of a cell Also move material within cells Carries new protein from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Complex
Golgi Complex (Apparatus) Packages and distributes proteins Looks smooth Transports material within the cell or out of the cell
Chloroplasts Location of photosynthesis in a cell Only in plant cells Also has its own DNA Sugar produced is used by the Mitochondria to make ATP
Mitochondrion Breaks down food and sugar to produce energy The power source of the cell Energy is released as ATP: ATP helps the cell do work Has its own DNA
Structure The arrangement of parts in an organism Shape Material
Function The job part does
Mitosis Cell cycle that divides the nucleus into two new nuclei with one copy of DNA in each new cell
Chromosomes Rods made of condensed chromatin, containing DNA
Energy Transfer - ATP Energy moves from one object to another without changing form Energy comes in the form of ATP
ATP An energy carrier in the cells of all known organisms required for processes and activities such as: Protein synthesis Active transport Muscle contraction Mitosis and Meiosis ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
Energy Transformation Transformation of energy occurs when energy in one form is converted to another
Cellular Respiration Allows organisms to use (release) energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose
Fermentation Takes one product of glycolysis and further breaks it down without the use of oxygen, in the cytoplasm
Photosynthesis Food making process that uses sunlight to produce sugar Occurs in green plant cells - chloroplasts
Passive Transport The movement of molecules through the cell membrane without the use of energy
Diffusion Molecules of a substance move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis The diffusion of water through the cell membrane
Active Transport When materials require energy to move through a cell membrane Materials move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration: salt and potassium
Receptor Senses and responds to changes in the environment and sends info to control center
Control Center Determines the necessary response and sends info to effector
Effector Creates a change to correct the issue
Created by: mckennna