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GI Elimination

Fundamentals Exam 2

Route of GI tract mouth. esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anus
Factors that affect GI elimination nutrition status, personal habits, medications, spinal injury, surgery, pregnancy, infections, food intolerance, physical activity, illnesses, stress, position, diagnostic test
What is peristalsis? contraction that propels food through the length of the GI tract
Diarrhea increase in the number of stools and the passage of liquid, unformed feces
Impaction results from unrelieved constipation and is unable to expel the hardened feces retained in the rectum
Constipation symptom, not a disease (infrequent bowel movement - less than 3 per week)
Risk from diarrhea dehydration, watch potassium, skin breakdown (keep skin clean and dry while using barrier cream)
Prevention for GI problems exercise, fiber in diet, laxative use, and stool softener
What can laxative abuse lead to? constipation
Why would a nurse need to give an enema? constipation, medications, procedure, relieve gas
What is an enema? the instillation of a solution into a the rectum and stimulates peristalsis
Cleansing enema promote the complete evacuation of feces from the colon; typically for diagnostic procedures
Types of cleansing enemas tap water, normal saline, hypertonic solutions
Tap water hypotonic solution, do not repeat -> water toxicity (fluid overload), fill up bag with large volume of tap water to irritant and have bowel movement (very cheap)
Normal saline isotonic solution- same as blood, safest enema -> use on children and won't cause electrolyte imbalance
Hypertonic solution Fleets enema - can give to self, hypertonic, pulls water from the body to the gut (opposite water) Soap suds - castile soap to water, irritant the gut and get this out of here Oil retention -absorbed in the stool to soften and hopefully get it out
Kayexalate enema potassium exiting; pulls K to stool and expels through rectum - used for patients with a high K level
Contrast enema barium enema to show problem in the bowel - diagnostic
Carminative enema provides relief from gas distention
Can a CNA give an enema?? yup
Position for enema left lateral Sim's, can do on bedpan; cannot give on toilet - can perforate the intestinal wall (DO NOT GET NEAR RECTUM WHEN ADMINISTERING)
Safety recap on enema wear PPE, use IV pole to hang bag, warm temperature, adult - 3-4 inches and child - 2-3 inches, angle tubing toward belly button
If a nurse needs to slow down the rate of an enema, what should they do? Lower the bag to slow down the rate of the enema because of patient complaining of discomfort
What type of enema should a nurse never repeat? tap water
Symptoms of impaction constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, rectal pain, abdominal distention
Can a CNA do a dis-impaction? Why? No, nurse can only do this. Because of stimulation of vagal nerve that can lead to bradycardia
How does a nurse do a dis-impaction? insert one finger, let sphincter relax and feeling of hard stool, insert two fingers, scissor motion to break apart big mass, mass into bedpan or something (sometimes patient can pass it)
Stoma abdominal wall, beefy red color (blue - no blood flow), way for stool to come out, needs to have a really tight fit on ostomy bag
Ileostomy ileum location for ostomy
Colostomy colon location for ostomy
What is an ostomy bag called? an appliance
Ascending liquid stool
Transverse semi-solid stool
Descending solid stool
Created by: Fmsarmie