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Sociology Chapter 3


Values Shared beliefs about what a group considers worthwhile or desirable, they create norms
Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis Idea that language structures thought & that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language, is based on this premise
Language System of using vocal sounds, gestures, & written symbols for communication
Gestures Signs we make with the body
Signs Used to represent something else
Symbolic Culture Ways of thinking
Material Culture Tools, machines, utensils, buildings, & artwork
2 Categories of Culture 1. Material Culture 2. Symbolic Culture
Culture Relativism Process of understanding cultures on their own terms, rather than judging according to your own
Ethnocentrism When people use their own cultures as a standard to evaluate another group or individual
Culture Entire way of life for a group of people
Counterculture Group within a society that openly rejects, & may actively oppose, society's values, & norms
Subcultures Groups within a society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, & lifestyle
Dominant Culture Most powerful in terms of wealth, prestige, status, & influence
Multiculturalism Values diverse, racial, ethnic, national, & linguistic backgrounds; thus encourages the retention of cultural differences within society, rather than assimilation
Social Control Formal & informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values & norms & thus increase social cohesion
Taboo Norm engrained so deeply that thinking about violating it evokes a strong feeling of disgust for most people
More Norm that carries moral significance, core value, & often involves severe repercussions for violators
Folkway Loosely enforced norm that involves a common custom, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction & acceptance
Norms Rules regarding what kind of behavior are acceptable & appropriate within a culture
Created by: aleahgoodson