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GU Elimination

Fundamentals Exam 2

Micturition The act of urinating
Proteinuria protein particles in the urine ( cloudy looking)
Hematuria blood in the urine (pink to red color)
How much percentage of urine is water? 95%
Cystitis irritation of the bladder; urgency, frequency, incontinence, suprapubic tenderness, foul-smelling, and cloudy
Pyelonephritis serious upper UTI; fever, chills, diaphoresis, and flank pain
Urologist surgeon
Nephrologist sets up the treatment and medication (dialysis)
Anuria no urine
Polyuria a lot of urine
Oliguria little bit of urine
Colonoscopy take a look in the colon for anything that is cancerous or non-cancerous
What is the most common pathogen in an UTI? Escherichia coli
Bacteriuria Bacteria in the urine
What kind of patients are at risk for an UTI? Elderly patients: decreased ADL's, immunocompromised, saggy skin, declining kidney function, immobility, smell diminished, and incontinence Women are more susceptible than men due to length of urethra.
Suprapubic catheter Going in a surgically created incision in the lower abdomen
Incontinence Complaint of any involuntary loss of urine
Continence Voluntary loss of urine
Who is at risk for difficulty when urinating? Geriatric patients, children - nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting)neonates -(kidneys not mature yet, young adult women - pregnancy, renal patients, nurses - busy people in general, spinal cord injuries, altered cognition status, BPH, neuro problems
What is a CAUTI? Catheter associated urinary tract infection
Overflow incontinence BPH, constricted bladder that urine can't come out; tends to let a small amount of urine out when full, but not enough to empty the bladder (dribbles)
Stress incontinence Comes from pregnancy; increased abdominal pressure when sneezing, coughing and laughing
Urgency incontinence Bladder is oversensitive; lots of urine comes out at once
Functional incontinence Mobility problems - taking too long for you to get to the place to empty out bladder
Reflex incontinence From a spinal cord injury, reaches certain volume of urine and urinates involuntary
Intervention for stress incontinence Kegel exercises
Intervention for urge incontinence Assess for a UTI -> older people will be confused when they have one
Intervention for functional incontinence Scheduled urination time, condom catheter, BSC
Characteristics of urine pH 4.6 to 8.0, no protein/ glucose/ketones/blood (unless menses)/bacteria/casts/crystals, specific gravity 1.0053 to 1.030
Casts, protein Indicate renal disease
Crystals Development of kidney stones (renal calculi)
Random urine collection (routine) just urine in a cup, nothing special
Clean-voided or midstream collection proper cleaning, pee a little first, then put cup to catch urine
Sterile for C & S indwelling catheter or straight catheter; determines the presence of bacteria and to which antibiotic the bacteria are sensitive
Timed urine specimen 24 hours urine collection; first specimen needs to be discarded and then time starts, always on ice, diagnostic test
Urinary retention the inability to partially or completely empty the bladder
Postvoid residual the amount of urine left in the bladder after voiding and is measured by ultrasound or straight catheterization
Promote bladder elimination? sound of running water, scheduled bathroom trips, hand in warm water, assist men to stand with urinal, run warm water over women's genital area
Nursing diagnosis for risk involved with an indwelling catheter risk for injury, risk for infection
Condom catheter condom with a tube connected to a catheter bag, not invasive so decreased risk for UTI, skin breakdown risk and don't really stay on well, secured by adhesive or special tape (condom tip needs to be 1 to 2 inches away from the tip of the penis)
How does a nurse prevent a CAUTI? sterile technique when inserting, bag below the bladder, no kinks, increased fluid intake, good perineal care and catheter care, D/C AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, HAND HYGIENE
Decrease risk of injury secure with the stat-lock (men: up to bifurcation and women: urine and a little more)
What are the advantages of having a suprapubic catheter? decrease risk of UTI because of away from Escherichia coli
When a night shift nurse takes out a foley on one of their patients, what does the day shift nurse need to know during report? 1. Have they voided? (4 hours of anuria - worried; 8 hours of anuria - call the provider; 30 mL/hour is minimally accepted) 2. What time was it D/C' ed?
Created by: Fmsarmie



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