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Water quality unit 2

Lectures 3 through 4

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between a lake and a pond? There is no true difference, although generally ponds are small, shallow, and not stratified.
What are five ways that a lake can form? Glacial activity Volcanic activity Tectonic activity Hydrological activity Anthropogenic activity
Give an example of a lake formed by tectonic activity. Red sea
What is a seepage lake? A lake which has no inflows or outflows, so relies purely on precipitation and groundwater
What are the three lake layers from top to bottom? Epilimnion Metalimnion Hypolimnion
How does oxygen enter a lake? Diffusion, turbulence, photosynthesis, chemical reactions.
What form oh phosphorus is usually present in lakes? Phosphates
Is there more organic or inorganic phosphorus in a lake? Organic
In a natural lake, how many phosphates are there? No more than 100 ppb
How can phosphorus enter a lake? Soil Sediment release Humans
Explain how pH can affect nutrient exchange in water. Acidic conditions lead to more phosphates. This causes an algal bloom. This releases CO2 upon decomposition. This causes more acid.
Name the three major processes in the nitrogen cycle. Fixation, nitrification, denitrification.
What is fixation of nitrogen? Atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia
What disease is caused by excess nitrates? Blue baby syndrome
What are four functions of rivers? Purification Flood mitigation Drought mitigation Maintain salinity
What is a region? A broad geographical area with similar conditions.
What is a landscape? AN area with similar features
What are the three parts of a river landscape? The channel, the floodplain, and the upland transition zone.
What is sediment load? The sediment carried by the river.
What are two types of erosion? Rill Gully
What is the deepest part of the river channel called? The thalweg
What are two stages in waste assimilation? Physical and biological
What factors affect the length of a waste plume? Channel shape Flow rate Pipe design
What are the four pollution zones in a river? Degradation Decomposition Recovery/reaeration Clean water
What formation can form between an oxbow lake and a river? A clay plug
Differentiate between permanent and perennial rivers. Permanent rivers always exist. Perennial rivers don't exist in droughts.
What is a riffle? A water formation caused by water crossing from one bank to another.
What term describes a rivers straightness? Sinuosity
What is the term for a steep sloped bank? Scarp
What is the chute of a river? The part which is widest and has the slowest flow.
What is the term which describes the prion of a rivers flow supplied by ground water? Base flow
What is a splay? A splay occurs when the levee breaks and water is released onto the floodplain
Which great lake is biologically dead? Erie
What are three wetland features? Hydric soil, hydrophytic vegetation, and hydrogeology
Beavers are an example of what kind of species, and why? Beavers are a keystone species, because they impact so much ecosystem despite their small numbers.
What are four types of dams? Earth Gravity Arch Buttress
Most dams are which kind of dam? Earthen
Differentiate between gravity and buttress dams. Both are concRte triangles, but buttress dams have extra support
Where would you see an arch dam? In narrow canyons with a solid rock wall
What chemical can accumulate in man made reservoirs, and how? Mercury/methylmercury can occur as a result of anoxic conditions from decomposing bacteria in addition to sulfur reducing bacteria
What are the three size categories of invertebrates? Micro Meio Macro
Are fungi, bacteria, or viruses more abundant in lakes? Viruses
Why are bacteria imprtant in ecosystems? They boost lake metabolism such as mineralization.
What are periphytic algae? Exist near the surface
What defenses might a phytoplankton have? Spines, mucus, large size.
What phytoplankton is common to basic oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes? Diatoms
What type of lakes do cyanobacteria dominate? Basic eutrophic lakes
What type of lake do dinoflagellates exist in? Neutral mesotrophic.
Why are cyang bacteria important? They participate in nitrogen fixation, indicate high phosphorus, and can be a health issue.
Name one characteristic of a diatom. Silica cell wall
Name one characteristic of chrysophytes. They have carotenoids
Name two characteristics of dinoflagellates? Bioluminescence Red tide
O aquatic macrophages have support tissue? No
What are the four classes of aquatic macrophyte. Emergent Floating leaves Submersed Freefloating
Where would you likely find a rotifer? In periphytic vegetation in an oxygenated habitat
What is a copepod Cope pods are colourful marine microcrustaceans.
How could you recognize a branchipod? They have 5 pairs of appendages on their head.
How many frehseater orders of malacostraca are there? 4
Are insects more likely to be found in lakes or streams? Streams.
Created by: swilson67