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Respiratory Complaints

lines pulmonary cavities & adheres to thoracic wall, mediastinum and diaphragm parietal layer
covers lung and adheres to all its surfaces visceral layer
pumping action of heart, blood vessels, blood volume factors of perfusion
99-98% of O2 bound to haemoglobin
1-2% of O2 dissolved in plasma
responsible for slightly constricted smooth muscle tone of resting lung parasympathetic stimulation
causes airway relaxation, blood vessel constriction & inhibition of glandular secretion sympathetic stimulation
monitor blood levels of O2, CO2, and pH chemoreceptors
monitor breathing patterns and lung function lung receptors
diffusion of oxygen from lungs to blood oxygenation
760mmHg (sea level) atmospheric pressure
gas exchange in the respiratory system ventilation
total exchange of gases between atmosphere and lungs pulmonary ventilation
adequate blood circulation through pulmonary vessela perfusion
pressure inside the airways and alveoli of the lungs = atmospheric pressure intrapulmonary pressure
pressure within the pleural cavity < atmospheric pressure intrapleural pressure
difference between intrapleular and intrapulmonary pressure transpulmonary pressure
pressure within thoracic cavity = intrapleural pressure intrathoracic pressure
ventilation V
perfusion Q
occurs in alectasis, COPD, pneumonia, pneumothorax, where SA of lungs reduced impairing ventilation potential low V/Q
occurs in shock, pulmonary embolism, cor pulmonale, where perfusion is impaired high V/Q
Failure of respiratory system in oxygenation of veinous blood or CO2 elimination Acute Respiratory Failure
Failure of gas exchange function Hypoxemic respiratory failure
Failure to ventilate Hypercapnic/hypoxemic respiratory failure
carbon dioxide retention causing increased RR VQ mismatch
gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary blood impeded severe hypoxemia but no hypercapnia, as CO2 crosses more freely
drug OD or injury causing CNS depression, Guillain-Barre syndrome, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy, COPD, thoracic cage disorders causes of hypercapnic/hypoxemic respiratory failure
increased RR and depth to eliminate CO2 Acidaemia
decreased RR and depth to eliminate O2 Alkalaemia
Rapid, shallow breaths, drowsiness, dizziness, disorientation, muscle weakness, hyperflexia, dysrhythnmias, pH<7.35, pCO2>45mmHg, low BP Respiratory acidosis
Deep rapid breathing, seizures, tachycardia, low BP, Hypokalemia, numbness & tingling of extremeties, lethargy and confusion, light headedness, nausea, vomiting, Respiratory alkalosis
chronic and recurrent obstruction of pulmonary airways CORD
associated with destruction of tissues and alveoli, causing enlarged airspaces and leading to gas trapping emphysema
smoking, inherited deficiency of alpha antitrypsin causes of emphysema
loss of lung elasticity, abnormal enlargement of airspaces, alveolar wall destruction, capillary bed destruction. characteristics of emphysema
protease inhibitor, protects lung, alpha-antitrypsin
incomplete expansion of lung or portion of lung causing decreased lung volume atelectasis
mucus hypersecretion, associated with hypertrophy of submucosal glands in trachea and bronchi bronchitis in large airways
obstructed, increased goblet cell numbers, mucus plugging of lumen, inflammation, fibrosis of bronchial wall bronchitis in small airways
permanent dilated bronchi and bronchioles, supporting muscle & elastic tissue destroyed with chronic infection & inflammation, bronchiectasis
blood borne substance lodges in a pulmonary artery branch, mechanically obstructing flow pulmonary embolism
pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure may develop with massive vasoconstriction large embolus
nose, oropharynx and larynx upper respiratory tract
trachea, primary bronchi and lungs lower respiratory tract
caused mostly by viruses, can damage bronchial epithelium, obstruct airways and lead to secondary bacterial infections respiratory tract infection
inflammation of parenchymal structures of the lung pneumonia
portion of lung involved in gas transfer, alveoli, alveolar ducts, respiratory bronchioles. parenchymal
bacterial infection, multiple extracellularly in alveoli, cause inflammation and exudation of fluid into alveoli typical pneumonias
viral and septum and interstitium of lung infected atypical pneumonia
protect against aspiration to tracheobronchial tree glottic & cough relfex
removes secretions, microorganisms and particles from the respiratory tract mucociliary blanket
removes microorganisms and foreign particles from the lungs phagocytic and bacteriocidal action of alveolar macrophages
alveoli filled with fluid containing multiple organisms causing capillary congestion Oedema (pneumonia)
massive outpour of leukocytes and red blood cells Red hepatisation
arrival of macrophages, phagocytose fragmented bacterial cells, RBCs and cellular debris Grey hepatisation
alveolar exudate removed, lung slowly returns to normal Resolution (pneumonia)
inflammation of pleura, common in infectious processes, especially pneumonia pleurisy, pleuritis
abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity, excess rate of formation or decreased lymphatic clearance Pleural effusion
extravascular fluid transudate
intravascular fluid exudate
accumulation of serous transudate in pleural cavity hydrothorax
lymph effusion from GI tract chylothorax
presence of air in pleural space pneumothorax
occur in healthy people, tall boys aged 10-30yrs, smoking family history of pneumothorax primary spontaneous pneumothorax
occur in people with lung disease, associated with conditions causing gas trapping & lung tissue destruciton, life threatening due to underlying issue and poor compensatory mechanism secondary spontaneous pneumothorax
occurence associated with menstrual cycle, usually reccurrent, unknown cause, women 30-40yrs with endometriosis, develops within 72h of menses onset, often R lung catamenial pneumothorax
pneumothorax via penetrating/ non penetrating injuries traumatic pneumothorax
life-threatening intrapleural pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, causes compression atelectasis of unaffected lung tension pneumothorax
venous return to the heart is impaired due to compression of superior and inferior vena cava, decreasing CO, heart migrates in cavity mediastinal shift
accumulation of blood in pleural cavity haemothorax
fills 1/3 of pleural space moderate haemothorax
fills 2/3 of pleural space and must be drained asap large haemothorax
chronic cough, SoB, wheezing, haemoptysis, pleuritic chest pain lung cancer
upper airway constriction characterised by snoring, disturbed sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness sleep apnoea
Created by: 1092422624234171