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Heart+Circulation

QuestionAnswer
What is the definition of the heart? The pump that generates blood flow around the system.
What is the definition of the arterial system? The conductance vessels that carry the blood around the body.
What is the definition of microcirculation? Where transfer of nutrients, waste and water occurs.
What is the definition of the venous system? The capacity vessels, that store and return blood to the heart.
Where is the heart located? Lies centrally in the chest, between the lungs and pleura, in the middle mediastinum.
What is the heart surrounded by? The pericardial sac of fibrous tissue, that is lined by a serous, slippery membrane that secretes a miniscule amount of lubricating fluid.
Describe the chambering system of the heart. The heart has 4 chambers that contract in synchrony, as a single unit or syncytium to pump blood.
The heart must be muscular, but... ...be able to transmit waves of conduction and contraction.
It must beat continually... ...at variable rates, from slow to fast, but never tire.
How is blood flow direction controlled? Blood flow must only flow in one direction and is controlled by valves.
What is the ideal space for the heart? It must lie within a lubricated, potential space to allow expansion and contraction.
Define auricle. A small pouch in the wall of each atrium of the heart.
What is the bottom surface of the heart called? Diaphragmatic surface.
What is the anterior surface of the heart called? Sternocostal.
What forms the inferior diaphragmatic surface? The left ventricle.
What does the left atrium form and where does it lie? It forms the base of the heart and lies posteriorly.
What is the circulatory system of the BODY called? The systemic circulation.
Where in the heart does blood return to from the systemic system? The right atrium.
Which valve links the right atrium to the right ventricle? The tricuspid valve.
Where does the right ventricle pump blood to? The pulmonary trunk.
What does the pulmonary trunk divide into? The left and right pulmonary arteries.
What is the process of making deoxygenated blood oxygenated called? Pulmonary circulation.
What does oxygenated blood return to the left atrium in? The left and right, superior and inferior pulmonary veins.
Which valve connects the left atrium to the left ventricle? The mitral valve.
What does the left ventricle pump blood into? The aorta, which "conducts" it into the body (systemic circulation).
How many litres of blood are there in the body? 5 litres.
What are all blood cells lined by? Endothelial cells.
What takes blood into the right atrium? Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava and Coronary sinus.
What takes blood out of the right atrium? The tricuspid valve.
What is the coronary sinus? A collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).
What is the fossa ovalis? The site of what was the foramen ovale in the embryo.
What is the foramen ovale? An opening from right to the left atrium that allowed oxygenated blood coming from the mother to by-pass the non-functioning foetal lungs.
What forms the cardiac conduction system? The sinoatrial and atrioventricular node.
What does the left atrium receive blood from? The 4 pulmonary veins that bring oxygenated blood from the lungs. The superior and inferior, left and right pulmonary veins.
What is the function of the papillary muscles? They send tendinous cords to the edges of the valve cusps.
What opens and closes the tricuspid and mitral valves? The pressure of the blood.
What does LAB RAT stand for? Left atrium bicuspid, Right atrium tricuspid.
What do the papillary muscles and tendinous cords prevent? Cusp eversion into the atrium during ventricular contraction.
What happens to the surface of the ventricle walls near the outflow? It becomes smooth to create laminar blood flow into the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
What type of cusps do the pulmonary and aortic valves have? Semilunar "watch-pocket" cusps.
What happens to the cusps during systole? Blood passes through the valve, forcing the cusps against the vessel wall.
What happens to the cusps during diastole? Elastic recoil in the pulmonary trunk and aorta forces blood between the cusps and the vessel wall forcing the cusps to meet in the centre of each vessel.
Where do the left and right coronary arteries arise from? The aortic sinuses just above the valve cusps.
What is the function of the sinoatrial node? (The pacemaker) can be sped up or slowed down by the autonomic nervous system.
After it leaves the SAN, where does the wave of conduction pass to? The atrioventricular node.
What is the only route by which conduction may pass after it leaves the AVN? The bundle of His.
What happens to the wave of conduction after reaching the Bundle of His? It continues into the left and right bundle branches that spread the conduction through each ventricle.
What does the coronary conductive system ensure. Synchronous contraction, in the correct sequence, toward the outflow of each chamber.
Created by: robertspedding