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anatomy lectures semester 1

if the: head is facing front , elbows are back , arms are straight hanging at sides with palms out and fingers splayed aswell as feet facing fromnt and legsa almost togther what is this? anatomical base
what is supine ? thrown baclwars (laying on back)
what is prone? thrown foward (laying on belly)
what are the three anatomical planes? transverse (cut in half ) coronal (outline of the person) saggital(in half down the midline)
where is the hypogastic region ? beneath the unblical region
where is the epigastic region ? abobve the unblicial regionm
where is the umbillical region ? in the centre of the quadrents
where are the right and left hypochondriac regions ? either side of the epigastic region
where are the right and left lumbar regions ? either side of the unbliical region
where are the right and left illiac regions ? either side of the hypogastic region
why do we use quadrents ? to narrow down location of organ position
where did the term hypochindriac coem from? hypo = under chondros = cartilage iac=location little crtalige bottom of stermum. comes from dark ages from as people suffered from gastroinsetnial problmes form bad food and water. all occured around bottom of stermun so they called it hypochondriac
what detrmines what is left or right? the body or whos observing it? always persons left and right not the observers.
what does lateral mean? away from the mind line
what does medial mean? towards the midline
what are the eyes directionally from the nose? lateral
what are the eyes directionally from the ears? medial
whats the term anterior mean ? the front ( think antlers)
whats the term for the back of something anatomically? posterior ( think arse)
does changing the geography of your body I.E turning your head to look behind make your eyes posterior due to their direction? no gepgraphy of the body doesnt change. think of blood supply.
whats the anatomial term for above? this is superior. i.e the brain is superior to the heart
what does the anatomical term inferior mean? below a certain point i.e the the rectum is infior to the heart
what does proximal mean? towards / closest to
what does distal mean ? away from a certain point of attachemnt i.e the hand is distal to the elboiw
whats the diffeenc between superfical and deep ? superfical is on the surface and deep is depth on an object
what does the soecialsed term ipslateral mean? same side
what is the opposite term to ipsilateral? contralateral
whats the term means wall side? parietal
what term means organ side? visceral
what term means towards the nose / frontal lobe? rostral
what terms can be used instead of anterior and posterior? these are someties used to describe animal as they are quadrepeidal. palmar and dorsal
what is flexion? a movement that decreases an angle between two parts
what is extension? increasing the angle between two parts
when you abduct something anatomically what do you do ? move it away from the midline
what is adduction? moving something towards the midline
what are the two types of rotation? lateral - towards the back medial- towards the chest
using the terms superior and inferior explain what is mean by depression and elevation? elevation is a moveent in a superior direction (upwartds) depression is the movement in the inferior direction (downwards)
define protraction Protraction is movement of a body part in the anterior direction
define retraction Retraction is movement of a body part in the posterior direction
what specailed movemnts is in referece to the rotation of the forear, or foot? Pronation -(Pronation of the foot – putting weight on the inside (medial aspect) of the sole) Supination -(Supination of the foot - putting weight on the outside (lateral aspect) of the sole)
what specailed movemnts is in referece to the decrease of the angle between the top of the footr and shin? Dorsiflexion (Dorsi – towards the dorsal(fin)) Plantarflexion (Plantar – sole of the foot (i.e. plantarfasciitis))
what are the 4 bone types ? sesamoid , short , flat and long
what are the functions of bones? support and movement
whats the difference between the axial and appendicular skelaton? axial houses vital parts of the body- skull , ribs , spinal collum appendicular allows mov ement - legs arms
whats the function of cartilage? shock absorbtion and lets connected bones have mobility
why does cartilage heal slowly? it has no blood vessles
name the 3 types of cartilage? hyaline, elastic and fribrocartilage
what do tendins connect ? bone to muscle
what do ligamens connect? bone to bone
how many quadrents are there? what are they ? 4 quadrents: right upper left upper right lower left lower
how many vertebrae in the cervical region of your vertebral collum? 8
how many vertebrae in the thoracic region of your vertebral collum? 12
how many vertebrae in the lumbar region of your vertebral collum? 5
how many vertebrae in the sacral region of your vertebral collum? 5 (all fused )
how many vertebrae in the coccygeal region of your vertebral collum? 1
name the three types of trans[ort across cell membranes. passive diffusion , facilitated diffusionand active tranport
what is passive diffusion and what can it diffuse? this is diffusion of fat soluble substances such as gas like oxygen. these move from high to low concetration.
what is facilitated diffusion? the cells wont allow ions through unless it uses this. it studs its membrane with protein channels to let ions pass through such as water and other polar molecules. its facilitated as it can only transport down the gradient
what is active transport ? this transport moves subatences against conectration graients. this process uses atp to pump ions out of the cell such as caclium. you can slo use the movemt of one ion to move another like 3NA+ in and Ca+2 out
what ion gradiemts have the majority of the ion extracellulary and intracellulary? K is the most intecellular Na , Cl and Ca are all extracellular
what is the nernst equation used for? desibes the potential for one ion
how do you meansure membrane potential? put a cell into solution using a glass microelctrode connected to a reference electrode. this glass will emnter the cell will show a potential dofference between the charge outside the cell and inside.
name the parts of a neuron. dendrites that recieve info soma (cell body) axon axon terminal (communicate to other cells) node of ranviar mylein sheath
if the stimulus is below the voltage threshold of your nervewhats it called and what happens? the neurone wont fire so it wont result in action poetntial. reulting in a touch you can feel or sound you can hear
what is a neurone a single nerve cell
whats a nerve a collection of neurones
whats a synapse the site of communication between two neurones
what is a neurotransmitter a chemical relase by a neurone which causes an effect at another cell
what is membrane potential the elctrical charge across a memrane
why do we have membrane potential due to ion gradients
why is the cell membrane not ideal for ion transport by itself its made of fat which is impermiable to ions
what direction does action potential move in 1 way : dentrites to soma to axon to axon terminal
how is action potential formed it is formed by the movemnt of ions from outside the nerurone to inside the neurone. when it recivbes DD it opens gates to move postive ions form outside the cell to inside depolarising it.
when a dendrite recieves a signal whats it called? dendrtic depolarisation (DD)
what does polarisation mean? charge that is asemetrically distrubuted. positive one side negative the other
what is a neruoens polarisation positive ions on the outside and negative on the inside
what channles does depolarisation open what does this cause ? voltag gated sodium channles. this couss depolarisation to spead from the dxrentrite sto the soma of the cell and then to the axon.
whats a ligand gated ion channle these are gates that open on the cell in response to a chemical messenger binding to it to allow the movement of ions into the cell.
why do positive ions flow into te neurone once the ion channle is opned? becuase opssosite charges attract. the inside is negative so it attracts the postove ions.
how does the opening of ligan gated ion channle affect other channles? the change in the volatge is sensed by sodium channles opening them. this depolerises that part of the nerueon which triggers the next and nexts until its completky depolerised.
how does the neruone repolerise itself? once action potentiual has occured it will open potassium channles. postassium is high insdie the cell so once th gates open they will move out since inside is now positive after depolerization.
whats the refactory period ? this is when the cell cant fire agin becuase it has sodium inside the cell and potassium outside.
how do you get potassium back inside the cell after the refactry period? the sodium potassum exhanger using atp.
what voltage gate is opened when the synaptic terminus is depolerised a voltage gated calcuim channle
when calcuim enters the depoerised synapicti terminus what do they form? they form vesicles full of neuro transmitters. the calcuim makes the fused to the membrane casuing exocytosis relaesing the neurtoansmitter across the snapse.
whats a synape gaps between neurones
where is the pre synapse when neurotranmitter is relasded
where is the post synapse when the neurotransmitter is recived
what channels cause neuronal depoleisatom dosium channles
whay channles causes repolarisation potassium channles
define a neurotransmitter a chemical that is realse from one neurone to another to transfer a message/information
what are the 3 types of nueruo tranmitters excitory,inhibitory and neuro modulatoir
give an example of an excitory neurone glutamate , monoamine and acetlycholine
give an example of an inhibitory neurone GABA , clycine and endorphins
give an example of an neuroodulator neuropeptides and endocannabinoids
what neurotransmkitters are ionotropic? glutamate GABA and glycine
what neurotransmitters are metabotopic monoamines , histamnine
which are faster ionotropic or metabotpic ionotrpoic
which have more diverse affects metabotropic or ionotropic? metabotripic
what is meant by ionotropic? when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor on the post synaptic neurone which causes a protein channle to open which alows ions to flow in
if positive ions flow into the neuonre what willhappen depolerisation
if negative ions flow into the cell what will happen hyperpolerisation
the neurone will recive inhibitory neurotransmitters and excitory what detrmines the initation of an action potential ? if the excitory outweighs the inhubitory an action potential will fire.
what differnt types of neurone are there bipolar , unipolar , multipolar and pyrimindal cell
desrbea unipolar neuroe at one end they have a sensory receptor. they are unipolar becuase they have one process (1 axon 1 dendrite)
describe a multipolar neurone recive lots of dendritic inputs becuase they have lots of denrtes attached to the soma(cell body)
describe a bipolar neurone an interneurone , carrys info from ne neurne to the other
name the 3 types of glial cells astrocytes , microgilia and oligodendrocytes
whats the difference between central and peripheral nervous systems? central = brain and spinal cord peripheral = spine to muscles etc
the peripheral nervous system is divided into two , what are these called? somatic and autonomic
what does the somatic nervous system mostly control ? mainly controls voluntary movement (spine to skeletal muscles)
name the 3 jobs the autonomic system controls? internal environment , visceral functions (digestion , excretion , circulation) and endocrine function
is the autonomic voluntary or involuntary ? involuntary
what do ANS (autonomic nervous system) control specifically ? smooth muscle - iris , bladder etc secretory glands- adrenal medulla , sweat glands cardiac muscle- heart rate , contractile force (how hard to contract)
what is the ANS divided into ? sympathetic and parasympathetic
which of the ANS divisions is fight or flight and which is rest and digest? sympathetic = fight or flight (short term survival) parasympathetic = rest and digest (long term survival)
which ANS division provides lots of energy ? sympathetic
since parasympathetic and sympathetic both use the same nerves what can they be described as due to their effects? can be described to have opposing action. sympathetic increase energy para decrease etc
what is the syptahetoc chain ? allows all spacts of the smypathatic system to talk to one another. (communication across of sympathatic)
what important nerve associated with the parasympathetic system is at cranial 10? vagus nerve
what does the vagus nerve control? heart rate , lungs , pancrease , liver , stomach , intestines (basically anything visceral)
how does the ANS communicate in reference to nerves ? using ganglia
what are ganglia ? a structure containing a number of nerve cells forming a swelling
does the somatic nervous system have ganglia ? no they go straight to the muscle
what system releases noradrenaline? sympathetic
what does noradrenaline do ? similar to adrenaline , acts a neurotransmitter for sympathetic system , increases blood sugar and narrows blood vessles.
what receotors does noradrenaline act on ? adrenoceptors
how is noradrenaline inhibited? it inhibits itself (a2 autoreceptor , feedback inhibition)
name the 4 adrenoceptors a1 a2 B1 B2
which adrenoreceptors are excitory and which arent ? a1 & a2 are excitory B1 & B2 are inhibitory
what is the typical effector neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system ? noradrenaline
what is the typical effector neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system ? Acetylcholine
what do preganglionic neurones release ? cholinergic
name the two Acetylcholine Receptors Nicotinic & Muscarinic
where are the Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ? autonomic ganglia
where are the Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ? effector organs (smooth muscle , cardiac muscle etc.)
what does smooth muscle NMJ stand for ? Smooth Muscle neuromuscular junction
between parasympathetic and sympathetic which is more dominant ? parasympathetic is more dominant. sympathetic is made for quick energy bursts not long term survival
what is paradoxical fear ? when your body acknowledges there is no way to win and your ANS cant react (rabbit in headlights)
what causes your fight or flight response to kick in? moderate fear
why when petrified do we empty our bowels and bladder? such intense paradoxical fear causes a massive activation of the parasympathetic system. the parasympathetic promotes urination and excretion
what part of the nervous system do most pharmaceutical drugs target? sympathetic nervous system
what do agonists do ? they bind to the ligand site (active site) and activate it
what do competitive antagonists do? they bind to the ligand site (active site) and deactivate it (competitive inhibitor)
what do non competitive antagonists do? they bind at a distal site (not active site but maybe the side of it) altering the sites shape to stop ligands binding to it.
what are drugs that mimic the action of the sympathetic nervous system called ? Sympathomimetics
what are drugs that inhibit the action of the sympathetic nervous system called ? Adrenoceptor antagonists
what do Direct Sympathomimetics do? partially or completely mimic the effect of adrenaline/noradrenaline
name two indirect Sympathomimetics? what do they do ? cocaine (blocks noredenaline re uptake) & Amphetamine (Increases noradrenaline release &Blocks re uptake)
what do B1 agonists do ? stimulate heart rate/contractile force
what is Dobutamide used to treat? acute heart failure
what is Isoprenaline used to treat? heart block
what do B2 agonists cause? bronchodilation
what is Salbutamol used to treat ? asthma attacks
do alpha (a) blockers have many clinical uses in reference to Adrenoceptor Antagonists? limited clinical use
name two a-blockers in reference to adrenoceptor antagonists Phentolamine & Prazosin
do beta (B) blockers have many clinical uses in reference to Adrenoceptor Antagonists? important drugs in treatment of hypertension
name two B-blockers in reference to adrenoceptor antagonists atenolol & propranolo
what is hypertension? abnormally high blood pressure.
what are the main drugs that effect the respiratory system ? bronchodilators
what nervous system causes bronchodilation ? sympathetic nervous system
if the sympathetic nervous system causes bronchodilation what does this make it in terms of agonists and antagonists ? sympathetic nervous system agonists are bronchodilators
what nervous system causes bronchoconstriction ? Parasympathetic nervous system
if the Parasympathetic nervous system causes bronchoconstriction what does this make it in terms of agonists and antagonists ? parasympathetic nervous system antagonists are bronchoonstrictors
what drugs mimic parasympathetic action? Parasympathomimetics
what drugs Inhibit parasympathetic action? Cholinergic receptor antagonists
what effects do nictonic stimulents have ? releases glucose from the liver and adrenaline from adrenal medulla
what effects do Muscarinic agonists have ? Bronchoconstriction ,Salivation, sweating Diarrhoea, polyuria
what are Pilocarpines? medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye (eye drops)
what's the periosteum? a layer of tissue that covers the bone
what is compact bone known as ? what is it cortical bone and bone yoiu imagine when ou have a fratcure
what is the diaphyysis? central part of the long bone
what is the metaphysis? length spanning from siapthysis which usally ends at the grow plate .
whats another name for trebechualer bone ? spongy bone
what does spongy bone do ? forms scaffoldinginf
whewre does bone get its blood supply from ? blood vessles inside the medullary cavity
name the type of bones that form the shell ,scaffold and core of your bones. compact , spongy , medullary
why during menapouse do bones undergo excessive remodelling in owmen ? lack of eastrogen
during menopause what do women have an inbalence off? (not hormone) osteoblast and osteoclast
what are oeasticlasts special cells that resorb bone tissue
what are oestoblats special cells that secrete bone substance
what protein is expressed by ostoblasts? RANK ligand
what is OPG? an inhibitor secreted by osetoblasts to inhibit rank L
what is the prupose of OPG? regulating nome reabsorbtion?
where do RANK ligands bind? to the surface of ostoeclasts
what happens in the first stage of bone remodelling ? lining cells move apart becoming osgteoblats and expose the bone under them whilst expressing rank ligands
what happens in the second stage of bine remodelling ? RANK ligand binds to osteoclasts precursor cells making them mature into osteoclasts
what happens in the thurd stage of bine remodelling ? RANK ligand continues binding to oestoiglclast RANK to help it function (remodels bone)
what happens in the fourth stage of bine remodelling ? the osteob;lasts fall into the pit that the ostoclast has dug to form new bone matrixes. some get embedded and trapped becoming osteocytes. those left become new lining cells
how is bone remodelling regulated ? oestrogen limits the amount of RANK ligand made by oestoblasts and OPG bind to RANK ligand stopping it bnding to ostoeclast. ( competitive antagonst)
becuase less oestrogen is relaesed in meapausal women what happens to RANK ligand levles? increassed expression of RANK Ligand leading to more osteoclasts more bone remodelling activity thus more bone loss.
what are heamopoetic stem cells? cells that can produce blood cells
what are some charatceristics of heampoeteic stem cells? always renwiwing , short lived , simple structure (unicellular and matrix free), inflexable phenotype (stuck as 1 cell once its specialied.
what are the other type stem cells related to bone making and breaking ? mesenchymal stem cells
what are some charatceristics of mesenchymal stem cells? not always renewing , long libed , complex (multicellular , matric bound) , platic phenotype (can change role given the envirnemntal conditions)
what bone related cell does haemopoetic stem cells make ? osteoclast
what bone related cell does mesochymenl stem cells make ? osteoblast
what are the 3 pathways relate to osteoblast regulation ? runx2 , osterix and wynt signalling
what is the proximal epythisis distal to? articular cartilage
what does MSC stabd for mesenchymal stem cell
what are mechanosensors of bone ? canaliculi
what stimulation do neurogenic contractions need? nerve stimulated (e.g skeletal muscle )
what stimulation do myogenic muscle contractions need? spontaneous contraction (e.g cardiac muscle)
name 3 characteristics of skeletal muscle fibres ? striated , miltinucleated , unbranched , lots in a muscle,each has a nerve connection
how many fibvre types are there in referecne to muscles? 3 : slow twitch (type1) fast twitch oxidative (type2a) fast twitch glycolytic (type 2x)
what are the characteristics of slow twitch fibres? very aerobic ; low fatigue , repeative and slow moving
what are the characteristics of fast twitch oxidative fibres? aerobic ; have some resistance to fatigue , repetitive and fast
what are the characteristics of fast twitch glycolytic fibres? anaerobic ; high power , easily fatigued , sprints leaps etc
how many types of coloured muscles are there ? red and white
describe red muscles lots of mitochondria . lots of myoglobin , lots of capillaries
describe white muscles few mitochondria , less myoglobin , very few capillaries
do red or white muscles have anerobic metabolism ? red are aerobic and white are anaerobic
which has more contractile elements red or white muscle? white
what are myofibrils? threadlike strands found in muscle fibres
what are myofibrils made of actin , troponin and tropomyosin and myosin
what are myofibrils surronded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
what di smooth muscle fibres lack in contract to skeletal muscle? lack striation
how do smooth muscles grenerate force? crossbridge movents between actn and myosin generate force
ehat ions control cross brdge activity ? calcium ions
whats the first step in contraction? increased cytoplasmic calcium concenytration
whats the second step in contraction? calcium ions bind to calmodulin protein in cytoplasm
whats the first third in contraction? the calcium calmodulin complex binds to myosins light chain
whats the fourth step in contraction? this uses ATP to phosporalate myosin corssbridges
whats the fifth step in contraction? phosphorlated crossbridges bind to actin filiments
whats the sixth step in contraction? the corssbridge cyclin produces tensin and shortening
describe cardiac muscle fibres involentarily contracts , mononucleated , striated , branched
give an example of a long bone. femur
give an example of a short bone. bones in hand
give an example of a seamoid bone. patella
give an example of a flat bone. sternum
describe what the diaphysis is a tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone.
what hollow cavity containing blood vessles is found inside the diaphysis of long bones? medullary cavoty
what sort of marrow is the medullary cavity filled with? yellow marrow which store fat
what is the wider section at each end of the bone called? epiphysis
what is the epiphysis filled with ? sponmgy bone
what is the epiphyesial plate? a layer of cartilage in growing bone. when the bone stops growing the carticalge is replaced with tissue forimng the line
what is the lining of the medullary caivity called? the endosteum
what happens in the endosteum? bone growth , repair and remodelling
where desnt the periostium cover? the ends of the bone where the epiphyses meet other bones to form joints
if the epuohyses arent covered in periostium what are they covered in ? articular cartilahge
what is articular cartilage? a thin layer of cartilage that reduces friction
what is meant by articulation in reerence to bones? where two bones surfaces cpme together like your knee (like the cup of a joint and the bone end being rounded)
whats a prodjection in refercne to bone ? an area of bione that prodjects above the surface of the bone (attachemnt poimts for tendons and ligaments)
whats a condyle ? a rounded surface at the ends of some bones
whats a tubercle? sections of the lattice like matrix in spongy bone
whats a fossa? a shallow depression (a groove)
where are osteocystes found ? a space called a lacuna
whats a canaliculi? channels within the bone matrix
whats the microspoic strucural unit of compatct bone called? an osteon
describe an osteons structure rings of calcified matruce called lamella. and in the centre of each osteon is a central canal which has blood vessles and nerves.
where are lacuna's found? borders of lanellae. this means the canaliculi can connect with one another and then the central canal to ket nutrients be transported to osteocytes and waste to e remobed.
the arteires that eneter the medullary cavoty and spongy bone entre through what ? the nutrient foramen (a small opening in the siaphysis)
how can drugs that affect the parasympathetic system be calssied into? those that increase and decrease activity at postganglionic terminals
what are drugs that enhance cholinergic effects known as ? parasympathomimetric
drugs that inhibit cholinergic effects are known as? cholinergic recpetor antagonists
what is pilocarpine and agonist of? its a muscarinic agonist
name a muscarinic atnagonist that is related to nightshade. atropine which is related to atropa belladonna or more commenly known as deadly nightshade
what do both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres realses ? acetylcholine
what receptor recives acetyl choline ? nicotinic receptoors
postganglionic fibres release what in the sympathetic system? norepinepherine , acetlycholine
in the sympathetic system what recoetor does the acetlycholine attach itself postganglionically? muscarinic receptors
in the sympathetic system what recoetor does the norepinephrine attach itself postganglionically? alpha (a) or beta (B) adrenergic receptors
postganglionic fibres release what in the parasympathetic system? acetlycholine
in the parasympathetic system what recoetor does the acetlycholine attach itself postganglionically? to muscarinic recptors
what is the name for the special cell junction between cardiac muscle cells? intercollated disks
what 2 junctions do intercollated disks have? gap and anchoring junctions
what isa sacromere? the functional unit of the muscle fiber.
why is skeletal muscle striated? the arragemnet of the myofiliments of actin and myposin.
name 2 important proteins related to muscles and microfiliments troponin and tropomyosin
what are the chambers of the heart called? atrium's (atria) and ventricles
what does the pulmonary circuit transport ? blood to and form the lungs. picks up oxygen and realeases CO2
what does the sustemic cirucit transport? oxygenated blood to the bidy
what does the right venticle pump blood to? pumps into the pulmonary trunk which leads to the lungs via the right and left pulmonary attoerus.
what leads oxygenated blood back into the heart ? pulmoary veins
where does the pulmoary veins deposit blood? into the left atrium
where does he blood go when its in the right aroum? into right ventricle and then pulmoary
where does the blood go once in the left atrium? lect venyricle and then inot the aorta
since the heart is a muscle it requires oxygen. how does it get it? it has its own vein system
looking at muscle differecne between a transverse bisect of the heart? the left side will have more muscle as it produces more contracile force to pump blood systemically
what valve separates the right atrium and ventricle? the tricusbid valve
what is each flap of the valves between atria and ventricle attached to? chordae tendinae (heart strings)
what do the heart strings attach the valbes to ? papillary muscles
what does intercollated sisks have to do with heart contraction? helps synchronise the contarctions. sarcolemmas from near by cells bind tohgther at the disks
whats a sarcolemma ? the cell membrane of a strated musclew cell
whats the purpose of gap junctioons ? to allow the passage of ions between cells. these help synchornize contratctions,
what is the SA node? the sinoatrial node is a clump of myocardial conducting cells. the packemaker basically. sets pace for the rest of the heart
what is the next impornat node after the SA node? the Atrioventricular node (AV node) which passes the signal on via the bundle of his.
where is the bundle of his ? it goes down the interventricular septum (middle bit between right and left)
where does the bundle of his pass the signle to?
Created by: ry1