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Joints intro.


What is the definition of a joint? Where two or more bones meet.
What is the general function of a joint? Facilitate growth and transmit forces.
What does arthro mean? A joint.
What is the approximate amount of joints in the body? 230.
What is the approximate amount of joints in each hand? 27.
What are the categories of bone by type of movement? Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses and Diarthroses.
What are the categories of joint by soft tissue structure? Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Synovial.
What are examples of fibrous joints? Sutures, syndesmosis and gomphosis.
What are sutures joints? Joints between skull vault bones.
What are syndesmosis joints? A fibrous membrane between bones. E.g. radioulnar interosseous membrane.
What are gomphosis joints? "Peg and socket"- teeth in the jaw.
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints? Primary cartilaginous joint (synchondrosis) and Secondary cartilaginous joint (symphysis).
What is the structure of a primary cartilaginous joint? Bone then hyaline cartilage in the middle and then bone.
What is the structure of a secondary cartilaginous joint? Bone then hyaline cartilage then fibrocartilage in the middle then hyaline cartilage then bone.
What are examples of primary cartilaginous joints? First costosternal joints and the epiphyseal plates in growing bones.
What are the properties of primary cartilaginous joints? Very strong with no movement.
What are primary cartilaginous joints also known as? Synchondrosis.
What are secondary cartilaginous joints also known as? Symphyses.
What are examples of secondary cartilaginous joints? Joints of the sternum. Intervertebral discs. Pubic symphysis.
What is a synovial joint? A freely movable joint. The ends of the adjoining bones are covered with a thin cartilaginous sheet, and the bones are linked by a ligament lined with synovial membrane.
How does a synovial joint deal with stress? It has a fibrous capsule that consists of collagen fibres. May be thickened along lines of stress to form ligaments.
What is the function of ligaments? They restrict movement, protecting the joint from damage.
Where are intrinsic ligaments located? They are part of the capsule.
Where are extrinsic ligaments located? Outside of the capsule.
What is the function of articular cartilage in a synovial joint? Hyaline cartilage, creates frictionless surface.
Why is cartilage slow to heal? It has a poor blood supply.
What is the synovial membrane? Collagenous tissue that lines the fibrous capsule. Secretes synovial fluid.
What is synovial fluid made up of? Hyaluronic acid. Lubricin. A small number of phagocytic cells.
What is the function of synovial fluid? Reduces friction between the articular surfaces.
How does the synovial fluid reduce friction? Alignment of glycoprotein molecules changes with exercise. Exercise decreases viscosity so that lubrication improves (thixotropic).
How does the cartilage receive exchange materials? The synovial fluid provides nutrients (and O2) for articular cartilage and then also removes waste.
What are intra-articular discs also known as? Meniscus.
What are intra-articular discs classified as? Fibrocartilage.
Where are intra-articular discs found? In joints where there are rotatory movements.
What are bursae? Closed sacs lined with synovial membrane, lubricated with fluid.
Where are bursae found? Found where friction occurs. E.g. between skin and bone/ tendons and bone.
What are synovial sheaths? Specialised bursae that surround tendons where they are subject to pressure.
How many planes can ball and socket joints move in? 3 planes.
How many planes can a hinge joint move in? 1 plane.
What factors influence the stability of the joint? Shape of bones. Strength and position of ligaments. Tone of the surrounding muscles.
What type of disease is osteoarthritis? A degenerative disease.
Where does osteoarthritis occur? In the articular cartilage in weight bearing joints.
What type of disease is rheumatoid arthritis? An autoimmune disease.
What causes RA? Changes in synovium lead to the destruction of articular cartilage.
Created by: robertspedding