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Carbohydrates

QuestionAnswer
How are carbohydrates produced? By photosynthesis in plants.
What are the general features of monosaccharides? 3-6 carbon atoms. A carbonyl group. several hydroxyl groups.
What are aldoses? Monosaccharides with an aldehyde group and many hydroxyl groups.
What are ketoses? Monosaccharides with a ketone group and many hydroxy groups.
What is a Fischer projection? Used to represent carbohydrates. Places the most oxidised group at the top. Shows chiral carbons as the intersection of vertical and horizontal lines.
In a Fischer projection, the OH group on the ... ...chiral carbon farthest from the carbonyl group determined an L or D isomer. ...left is assigned the letter L for the L-form. ...right is assigned the letter D for the D-form.
What are the features of D-glucose? Found in fruits. An aldohexose. Known as blood sugar in the body. The monosaccharide in polymers of starch, cellulose and glycogen.
How are D-glucose and D-galactose different? Body cannot digest galactose. Must be converted to glucose first.
What is Galactosemia? Lack of enzymes required for galactose metabolism. Can result in accumulation of galactose intermediates. Toxic effects in liver, brain, kidneys and eyes.
How do cyclic structures form in monosaccharides? Form when the hydroxyl group on C-5 reacts with the aldehyde group or ketone group.
What happens when D-glucose is placed in solution? Cyclic structures open and close. Alpha glucose converts to beta glucose and vice versa. At any time, only a small amount of open chain forms.
What is the definition of a reducing sugar? A sugar that will reduce inorganic ions such as Cu++ (Fehling's reagent). All monosaccharides whether an aldose or a ketose are reducing sugars.
When can Fehling's reaction be used in medicine? To determine glucose levels in blood.
How does glucose enter red blood cells? In a non-insulin dependent manner.
What does uncontrolled hyperglycemia result in? The covalent linkage between glucose and the NH2 terminal amino acid of teh hemoglobin beta chain.
What is the half life of a red blood cell? 120 days.
What is glycation? Non-enzymatic addition of sugar.
What is lactose intolerance? Lack of lactase enzyme in the small intestines.
What is a problem with lactose intolerance? Lactose passes into the colon. Bacteria start to ferment lactose. Causes stomach cramps, bloating and flatulence.
What is the storage form of glucose? Glycogen.
Where is glycogen predominantly found? In the liver and muscles.
What is starch? The plant form of carbohydrate, ingested by humans.
What is amylose? An unbranched starch comprised of glucose units. Alpha 1-4 linkage.
What is amylopectin? The branched form of starch comprised of glucose units.
Why is cellulose considered as roughage? Mammals lack cellulases.
What are examples of hybrid biomolecules? Glycoprotein and Glycolipids.
What is the structure of nucleotides? Nitrogen ring linked to a five carbon sugar. Sugar can be ribose or deoxyribose. Phosphate groups attached.
Created by: robertspedding