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Primary tissue types

What is a tissue? A group of specialised cells with a distinct function.
What are the advantages of having tissues? Division of labour and coordinated function for tissues. Larger organisms possible, support and motility- exploitation of resources not available to single cells.
What regulates gene expression? Transcription factors.
What are the four basic types of body tissue? Epithelia. Connective tissue. Muscle. Neural tissue.
What is the function of a tight junction? Sealing.
What is the function of desmosomes? Strengthen cell links.
What is the function of gap junctions? Connect cytosols of adjacent cells for very small molecules.
What is the function of adherens junctions? Spots of connection linking movement of proteins (actin).
Where do epithelial cells sit? On an amorphous basement membrane made of extracellular matrix molecules.
What is the function of the BM? Anchor for epithelial cells. BM contains proteins that link to the surface of epithelial cells. Contains filamentous proteins that provide strength.
What is the function of the nervous system? Collects, processes/integrates and sends information (cells are adapted for local and distant cellular communication).
How many neurons are in the central nervous system? 100 billion neurons.
What are the key characteristic functions of neurons? They separate cells that communicate by releasing chemicals by secretion at the ends of cell processes. Therefore a neuron is no more than an elongated secretory cell.
What do dendrites do? Direct stimulus towards the cell.
What does the axon do? Directs stimulus away from the cell.
When does secretion occur in the nervous system? At the end of axons. Into specialised intracellular gaps called synapses (and neuromuscular junctions).
What is the function of myelination? It is a fatty sheath- discontinuous with periodic gaps. It enhances conduction.
What is an Oligodendrocyte? One of the cells of the glia, responsible for producing the myelin sheaths of neurons of the CNS.
What is a glial cell? The special connective tissue of the CNS.
What are examples of glial cells in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes (myelination). Astrocytes. Microglia. Ependyma (lining cells of the CNS cavities).
What are examples of glial cells in the PNS? Schwann cells (myelination). Satellite cells (support cells in ganglia).
What is the function of astrocytes? Metabolic and mechanical support. In CNS scar tissue also.
What is an alternative function of glial cells? Resident macrophages of the CNS. Involved in Phagocytosis and antigen presentation.
How many types of muscle cell are there? 3.
What is the structure and function of skeletal muscle? Striated, coordination contraction under direct voluntary. Can be involuntary in reflexes.
What is the structure and function of cardiac muscle?
Created by: robertspedding