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Section: Life

Chemistry of Life

What does an organic molecule contain? Carbon Atoms
What type of bond is typically found between carbon atoms and other elements? Covalent Bonds
What is an inorganic molecule (compounds)? A molecule not composed of hydrogen
What gives organic compounds the ability to have so many vast uses and complexity? The structure and placement of the atoms and their bonds.
What states are organic compounds found in? Gases, liquids, and solids.
What is photosynthesis? The biological process by which most plants, some algae, and some bacteria produce organic compounds for their food from water and carbon dioxide using solar energy
What is cellular respiration? Organisms turn glucose into the inorganic substances CO2 and H2O.
What are the 4 main types of organic molecules? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What are carbohydrates? What do they do? Carbohydrates consist of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They store energy used by cells and are structurally important for living things.
What is the simplest form of carbohydrates? A monosaccharide such as glucose.
How is the type of sugar determined? The number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms that attach and where they attach.
What makes up a lipid and what do they do? Lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They can be used to store energy. Lipids contain more energy per unit mass than carbohydrates.
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Hydrophobic. They do not dissolve well in water.
What are phospholipids? Phospholipids comprise the membranes of all cells.
What are proteins made of? All proteins are made up of building block molecules called amino acids. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids. Amino acids, like carbohydrates and lipids, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They also contain nitrogen.
What is the purpose of proteins? Proteins are also used for transporting materials within cells. Structural proteins give cells their shape. A special class of proteins called enzymes are involved in chemical reactions.
Does shape and alignment of amino acids in proteins matter? Yes. Shape and placement determine the function of a particular protein.
What are nucleic acids? A group of organic molecules that serve as the information carriers for living cells. DNA and RNA are examples of this.
What is a monomer? What is a polymer? Any kind of repeating molecular sub-unit. Monomers are called nucleotides. A molecule of many monomers put together is called a polymer.
A single nucleotide is made up of a simple sugar molecule (either ribose or deoxyribose) plus a phosphate group and another molecular group called a “base.” What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose? The difference between ribose and deoxyribose is the presence or absence of a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a particular carbon of the sugar.
What are the 4 types of nitrogen bases that make up DNA? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
What are the 4 types of ribonucleotide bases that make up RNA? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
How does each DNA molecule begin and end? Each DNA molecule begins with a 5′ phosphate-containing end and ends with a 3′ hydroxyl-containing end. The 5′ end of one DNA strand is lined up with the 3′ end of the second DNA strand
What pairs of bases are complementary to each other in DNA? In RNA? DNA: Adenine - Thymine, Guanine - Cytosine. RNA: Adenine - Uracile, Guanine - Cytosine.
What is the helical double-stranded DNA is coiled around? Specific DNA-binding proteins.
What is a gene? What do they do? A particular section of DNA that codes for an end product. Genes store information in the particular order, or sequence, of the four types of nucleotides that make up DNA.
What are enzymes? Biological catalysts that speed up biochemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze all the steps of metabolism including glycolysis, respiration, and photosynthesis.
What are reactants of an enzymatic reaction called? Substrates.
What does "lock and key" refer to? When substrates bind to an enzyme and provide a shaped spot for substrates to fit into. It works just as a key fits into a lock.
How do enzymes work? Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed to get them going. They lower the activation energy required for the reaction.
What impacts enzyme action? Substrate concentration, temperature, and pH. Most enzymes will only work in a narrow range of temperature or pH. Some enzymes require the presence of other substances in order to work.
What is adenosine triphosphate ? The energy currency of living cells.
ATP reactions provide energy that enable substances to? Such reactions enable substances to be transported within and between cells, proteins to perform their functions, and muscle cells to contract and produce movement.
What does a molecule of ATP contain that is different than a nucleotide? 3 phosphate groups instead of 1.
What provides the energy that ATP releases? The breaking of bonds between the phosphate groups.
What happens when one phosphate group is removed from ATP? ADP: Adenosine diphosphate
What is the difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions? Exergonic reactions release energy, endergonic reactions require energy input regardless of whether an enzyme is present or not.
Created by: JustEmma
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