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Micro Exam 1


This is the study of all diseases and disease patterns in populations epidemiology
These people collect and put together data about sources of disease and risk factors Epidemiologists
These disease detectives design infection control strategies, and prevent, or predict spread of disease Epidemiologists
These are transmitted from one host to another Communicable diseases
Communicable diseases are what type of diseases? CONTAGIOUS
Measles, colds, influenza, pneumonia, and strep throat are types of _______ diseases: communicable (contagious) diseases
Transmission of diseases or infections is determined by interactions between these factors: environment, pathogen, and host
What do antimicrobial medications do? kill or inhibit pathogens
What do vaccines do to control transmission? increase host resistance to infection by pathogen
These do not spread from host to host: non-communicable diseases
______________ most often arise from an individual's normal "microbiota" (_______) or the environment: Microorganisms, microflora
Clostridium tetanus is a _________ disease and is also the cause of _______: non-communicable, tetanus
Epidemiologists are less concerned with the absolute number of cases than the.....: rate of infections
This is the number of new cases/time/population; the measure of the risk of an individual contracting a disease: incidence rate
This is the number of cases at any time for a specific period of time in a given population; includes old/new cases and duration old disease: prevalence
Both incidence and prevalence are expressed as cases per ________ people 100, 000
This is the incidence of disease in the population at risk morbidity
This is the overall death rate in the population: mortality
In _______ countries, mortality is most often associated with non-communicable diseases such as cancer or a heart attack: developed
Major cause of death due to infection occurs in ________ countries developing
These are constantly present in a population: endemic diseases
The opposite of endemic diseases is: sporadic diseases (spreading)
The common cold and measles are examples of these types of diseases: endemic
This is a greater number of cases of infection in a large area: epidemic
This is a group of cases at a specific time and in a specific population in a small area: outbreak
This is a global epidemic: pandemic
AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Influenza are types of: pandemics
These are examples of reservoirs for infections: human, animal (non-human), and environmental
These are an obvious source of pathogens: human symptomatic reservoirs
These are more difficult to identify, carriers may not realize that they are infected and can cause spread of infection to others: human asymptomatic reservoirs
This is an example of an asymptomatic carrier of Typhoid Fever: Typhoid Mary
Salmonella typhi is also known as: Typhoid Fever
These primarily exist in animals, but can be transmitted to humans: Zoonoses (zoonotic diseases)
The plague and rabies are examples of these diseases: zoonotic
These are difficult or impossible to eliminate. Examples are foods, water, soil, and microorganisms that are airborne: environmental reservoirs
This transmission is from pregnant woman to fetus/mother to infant during childbirth or breast feeding: vertical transmission (womb to baby)
This transmission is person to person (host to host) via air, physical contact, ingestion of food or water, or vector: Horizontal transmission (someone sneezes on you)
These are living organisms that can carry pathogen but do not acquire the infection per se: vectors
This is the ability of a pathogen to cause disease virulence
These bind to mucosal epithelial cells: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
These adhere to intestinal epithelial cells: shigella species
This is protected by a capsule: streptococcus pneumoniae
This survives within activated macrophages: mycobacterium tuberculosis
This produces a protein toxin: E. coli O157:H7
This produces an enzyme that destroys cell membranes Clostridium perfringens
This is the minimum number of pathogens required to establish an infection: The Infective Dose
This influences the extent of spread of the infection: incubation period
This is previous exposure (infection); immunization via vaccine: Immunity to Pathogen
This protects non-immune individuals in a population; >80% immunity typically sufficient for protection: Herd immunity
________________ (genetic changes in pathogen) can overcome immunity antigenic variation (avian influenza)
____________ women are more susceptible to listeriosis: pregnant
Created by: tparker31
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