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Biology test #14

study guide for module fourteen

Botany The study of plants
Perennial plants Plants that grow year after year
Annual plants Plants that live for only one year
Biennial plants Plants that live for two years
Vegetative organs The parts of a plant (such as stems, roots, and leaves) that are not involved in reproduction
Reproductive plant organs The parts of a plant (such as flowers, fruits, and seeds) involved in reproduction
Undifferentiated cells Cells that have not specialized in any particular function
Xylem Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves
Phloem Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances throughout a plant
Leaf mosaic The arrangement of leaves on the stem of a plant
Leaf margin The characteristics of the leaf edge
Deciduous plant A plant that loses its leaves for winter
Girdling The process of cutting away a ring of inner and outer bark all the way around a tree trunk
Alternation of generations A life cycle in which there is both a muticellular diploid form and a multicellular haploid form
Dominant generation In alternation of generations, the generation that occupies the largest portion of the life cycle
Pollen A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants
Cotyledon A “seed leaf” which develops as a part of the seed - it provides nutrients to the developing seedling and eventually becomes the first leaf of the plant.
If a portion of a plant is producing new cells, what type of plant tissue will be in that region? Meristematic tissue
What do we call the structure that attaches the blade of the leaf to the stem? The petiole
In a leaf, what is the function of palisade mesophyll? photosynthesis
In a leaf, what is the function of spongy mesophyll? photosynthesis
In a leaf, what is the function of the epidermis? protection
In a leaf, what is the function of the xylem? transports water and minerals
In a leaf, what is the function of the phloem? transports food and organic substances
In a leaf, what is the function of the chollenchyma? support
What controls the opening and closing of the stomata on a leaf? The guard cells.
Why is the bottom of a leaf typically a lighter shade of green than the top of the leaf? The spongy mesophyll is typically on the underside of the leaf, and it is usually a lighter shade of green due to the fact that the photosynthesis cells are not as tightly packed there.
Name two types of pigments that cause leaves to be a color other than green. Carotenoids and anthocyanins.
If a tree has no abscission layer, will it be deciduous? No
Where is the abscission layer? The abscission layer is right between the stem and the petiole.
Name the four regions of a root. Which region contains undifferentiated cells? root cap, the meristematic region, the elongation region, and the maturation region. The undifferentiated cells are in the meristematic region.
What allows woody stems to have no limits to their growth, unlike herbaceous stems? The cork cambium can always produce more bark.
What is the function of vascular cambium? Produces new vascular tissue.
If a stem has cork cambium, is it woody or herbaceous? Woody
What kind of vascular tissue makes up most of the wood in a woody stem? What kind of vascular tissue is found in the inner bark of a woody stem? Xylem make up most of the wood in a woody stem, while phloem are found in the inner bark.
What is the dominant generation in the moss life cycle? Is it haploid or diploid? In mosses it is the gametophyte generation, and it is haploid.
A fern has antheridia and archegonia. Which part of the fern life cycle is it in? Is this the dominant generation? it is in the gametophyte generation, which is not the dominant generation for ferns.
Why are plants from phylum Bryophyta relatively small? Since plants from phylum Bryophyta have no vascular tissue, there is no efficient way to transport nutrients throughout the plant.
If a 15-foot tall plant has a root system that goes four feet deep, is it a fibrous or taproot system? The plant must have a fibrous root system.
What are the male and female reproductive organs in a tree from phylum Coniferophyta? The female reproductive organ is the seed cone, and the male is the pollen cone.
What is the fundamental difference between monocots and dicots? The number of cotyledons produced in the seed is the fundamental difference between monocots and dicots.
Name another difference between monocots and dicots. 1. In monocots, the venation is parallel, while it is netted in dicots. 2. Monocots have fibrous root systems whereas dicots have taproot systems. 3. monocots produce flowers in groups of three or six; dicots produce flowers in groups of four or five.
A plant produces seed cones and pollen cones. Is it vascular? To what phylum (of the ones that we discussed) does it belong? It belongs in phylum Coniferophyta. It is vascular.
A plant produces flowers. To what phylum does it belong? It belongs in phylum Anthophyta.
Created by: abigaileah



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