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4110 - Assignment 1

GIS key vocab from ESRI dictionary

TermDefinition
Area of Interest [map design] The extent used to define a focus area for either a map or database production.
CAD Computer-Aided Design. A computer-based system for the design, drafting, and display of graphical information. Also known as computer-aided drafting, such systems are most commonly used to support engineering, planning, and illustrating activities
Data Format The structure used to store a computer file or record
Datum The reference specifications of a measurement system, usually a system of coordinate positions of a surface (horizontal) or heights above/below a surface (vertical). Ex. WGS 84, NAD 83
Geodatabase Database used to STORE, QUERY, and MANIPULATE spatial data. Stores geometry, spatial reference system, attributes, and behavioral rules for data. Can store feature classes, attribute tables, raster datasets, network datasets, topologies
Elevation Vertical distance of a point or object above/below a reference surface or datum (usually mean sea level). Generally refers to vertical height of land
Ellipsoid 3d, closed geometric shape, all planar sections are ellipses or circles. Scalene: all three axes are different lengths spheroid: two of three axes are the same length
Feature Class Collection of geographic features with the same geometry type, same attributes, and same spatial reference. Can be stored in geodatabase, shapefiles, coverage, etc.
Feature Dataset A collection of feature classes stored together that share a spatial reference.
Feature Layer A layer that references a set of feature data. Stores symbology.
Gazetteer A list of geographic place names and their coordinates. May include other information. e.g. USGS Geographic Names Information System
GeoEnrichment Process of adding demographic and lifestyle data to mapas
Geographic Coordinate System A reference system that uses latitude and longitude to define locations on the surface of a sphere or spheroid. Must include DATUM, PRIME MERIDIAN, and ANGULAR UNIT
Hue Dominant wavelength of a color
Image Representation of a scene. Examples include remotely sensed data, scanned data, photographs. In ArcGIS, a raster dataset
Image Coordinate System x,y coordinate pair specifying location of a pixel in terms of row and column position. x gives column number starting from 0 at left edge; y gives row number starting from 0 at the top
Image Space x,y, coordinate space defined by columns and rows in a raster dataset. For use in a GIS image space must be transformed to real-world coordinate system through georeferencing
JSON JavaScript Object Notation. Data interchange format. An alternative to XML
LAN Local Area Network. Communications hardware and software that connect computers in a small area like a room or building.
LAS Binary file format for storing lidar data
Latitude Angular distance north or south of equtor
Longitude Angular distance east or west of a central meridian (usually Greenwich prime meridian) . All lines of longitude are great circles
Large Scale A map scale that shows a small area on the ground at a high level of detail
Lossless Compression Data compression that can store data without changing values but has a low compression ratio. Used for storing data when raster pixel values are important
Lossy Compression Data compression that has high compression ratios, but does not retain all information in the data. Used to compress raster datasets that will be used as background images.
Mosaic Dataset A collection of raster datasets stored as a catalog and viewed as a mosaicked image
Mean Sea Level Average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide over a 19 year period
Mental Map A person's perception of a place. Psychological construct but can be rendered as an actual map
Metadata Data about data. Describes content, quality, condition, origin, etc of data.
NoData Absence of a recorded value. DOES NOT MEAN 0!!!
Pixel data models: smallest unit of information in an image or raster remote sensing: fundamental unit of data collection graphics computing: smallest element of a display device that can be assigned attributes like color and intensit PICTURE ELEMENT
Qualitative Data Data classified by category (what type?). E.g. soil by type, animals by species. Can be nominal or ordinal.
Quantitative Data Date grouped by measurements of number or amount (how many?, how much?, how often?). Can be discrete or continuous
Raster A spatial data model the defines space as an array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and columns, and composed of single or multiple bands. Each cell contains an attribute value and location coordinates.
Small Scale A map scale that shows a relatively large area on the ground with a low level of detail
TIN TRIANGULAR IRREGULAR NETWORK. Vector data structure that partitions geographic space into contiguous, non-overlapping triangles. Used to display surface models.
Tobler's First Law of Geography "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." Defines spatial autocorrelation
Vertical Coordinate System A reference system that defines the location of z-values relative to a surface
XML EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE. A standardized markup language for designing text formats. Facilitates interchange of data between computer applications. XML is a set of rules for creating standard information formats using customized tags.
Z-value The value for a given surface that locations that represents an attribute other than position. In elevation or terrain model the z-value represents elevation. In other surface models it represents the density of quantity or a particular attribute
Created by: goofeth