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A&P Chapter 3 Cells

Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12e Chapter 3

How many major cellular organelles are there? 11 major cellular organelles
What makes up a cell membrane? millions of phospholipids
What is stored in the nucleus? DNA
What does a rough endoplasmic reticulum do? synthesizes protein
Where is the rough ER located? in front of the nucleus
What makes the rough ER rough? ribosomes
What is the purpose of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? makes lipids
Where is the smooth ER located? near the nucleus, after the rough ER
What is the golgi apparatus? a pocket or pita shape with an entrance and exit
What does the golgi apparatus do? allows amino acid chains to fold and communicate with others, edit imperfections and deliver. Grab, Edit, Fold, Deliver.
What does mitochondria do? produces energy for the cell (ATP)
What does the peroxisome do? destroys waste
What does the lisosome do? destroys or recycles waste
What does flagellum do? pushes the cell forward like a propeller
What is cilia? hairlike structures that are used for attachment and slight movements
What gives a cell its shape? cytoskeleton
What is mitosis? the division of a cell
What is the interphase cycle of the cell life? G1 - cell growth, S - genetic material duplicates, G2 - cell growth
What are vesicles? membranous sacs that store or transport substances within a cell and between cells
What is a centrosome? non membranous structure near the golgi apparatus consisting of 2 hollow cylinders
What are centrioles? the 2 hollow cylinders in the centrosome composed of 9 groups of 3 microtubules that distribute chromosomes to newly forming cells
What happens in the prophase of mitosis? DNA begins to coil tightly, centrioles begin to polarize, nuclear envelope begins to break down, microtubules form and associate with centrioles
What happens in the metaphase of mitosis? chromosomes begin to align midway between centrioles creating a 'plate'
What happens in the anaphase of mitosis? centromeres are pulled apart (opposite directions) pulled towards centrioles
What happens in the telophase of mitosis? chromosome migration is complete, cleavage furrows form, nuclear envelopes develop, chromosomes elongate/unwind into chromatin, nucleoli appear in the nuclei
Packed or smooshed DNA is called _____________. chromatin
Proteins are added to chromatin to make _________________. chromatids
Two chromatids paired make a ________________. chromosome (centromere)
What are the phases of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Created by: Scottylvr