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A&P Chapter 2

Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12e Chapter 2

What is chemistry? The branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes.
What is matter? Anything that takes up space
What is matter composed of? All matter is composed of elements
How many elements are required for life to exist? 20 elements
What is the nucleus of an atom comprised of? protons and neutrons, elections float around the nucleus
What is a proton? positively charged particle
What is an electron? negatively charged particle
What is a neutron? neutral particle with no charge
What is a cation? positively charged ion
What is an anion? negatively charged ion
What is it called when two particles bond? ionic bond
What is it called when two of the same particles bond and share electrons equally? covalent bond
What is it called when 2 or more atoms combine? molecule
What is it called when 2 or more different atoms combine? compound
An acid gives off _____________. hydrogen
A base accepts _____________. hydrogen
pH measures the concentration of ___________________ in a solution. hydrogen
On a pH scale, 1 is considered ________________. acidic
On a pH scale, 9 is considered _______________. basic
On a pH scale, 7 is considered _____________. neutral
On a pH scale, less than 7 is considered ________________. acidic
On a pH scale, greater than 7 is considered ________________. basic
What is a buffer? It is a solution that prevents change in pH; chemicals that combine with excess acids or bases to help minimize pH changes in body fluids.
What do carbohydrates do? carbohydrates provide energy for cellular activities and are comprised of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
The smallest carbohydrate, or single sugar, is called _________________. monosaccharide
A double sugar is called _________________. disaccharide
Multiple sugar molecules are called _______________. polysaccharides
What is a lipid? fatty acid
What are the 2 types of lipids? saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
What is a phospholipid? contains glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group make the cell wall
When looking at a chain of lipids, how can you tell if it is saturated or unsaturated? saturated is straight, unsaturated has a kink
What are proteins? a long chain of amino acids; complex shapes held together by hydrogen bonds
What is the primary structure of a protein? long chain of amino acids
What is a secondary structure of a protein? when the chain gets pleated or twisted (alpha helix or beta sheet)
What is a tertiary structure of a protein? when the secondary structure twists and pleats into a globular form
When 2 or more tertiary protein structures join together, you get a _______________. quaternary structure
What determines the function of a protein? it's shape
What is denaturation? the disruption of a proteins shape by pH, temperature, radiation or chemicals making the protein nonfunctional (breakdown).
What are the nucleic acids? RNA, DNA and ATP
What is RNA? single stranded nucleic acid
What is DNA? double helix nucleic acid
What is ATP? modified RNA that provides energy
Created by: Scottylvr