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Animal Behavior 2

Quiz 2 Animal Behavior USD Fall 2018 Dr. Andrea Liebl

QuestionAnswer
What are selection studies? the use of lab animals and selective breeding
What are knockout studies? the use of lab animals and then selectively turn off specific genes
What are gene expression studies? any animals and then compare gene expression between individuals
What is the current environment? now
What is the past environment? anything ever
Past environments are ______ to determine. hard
How can you get around past periods environments being hard to determine? by looking at developmental periods and sensitive periods
What portion of life is the developmental period? 1-2%
What is the predictive power of the environment? environment can help you predict things like lifespan of an individual and variability of the environment
What are the two types of behavioral change? perminant change and nonperminant change
What is another way to say nonperminant change? plastic/flexible change
Give four examples of how the current environment could control behavior. predator->fight or flight resources->agression mate->showy,singing weather->seek shelter temperature->incubation,shelter,shivering
how can the developmental environment control/influence behavior? temp->resource needs,feeding behavior,incubation time resources->size, feeding behavior, memory capacity, immune system, aggression Predators->stress response, parenting style, mating
What influences locust's swarm? density and concentration of the individuals
What is an example of of how the developmental environment influences damsel flies? the amount of fat in the egg influences aggression and breeding
What is an example of how the developmental environment influences daphnia? when they are exposed to predators young they tend to be more aggressive and vigilant
What is an example of how the developmental environment influences honey bees? royal jelly early in life influences aggression, mating and size of the individual
What is an example of how the developmental environment influences reptiles? sex differentiation in some species is determined by temperature
What is an example of how the developmental environment influences rodents? When they are licked and groomed as adolescence they are more likely to have more maturnal care when they are parents
What is the mechanisms for the environmental control of behavior in rodents? With the individuals who are groomed, the glucocorticoid receptors stay on, but in individuals who aren't groomed, methylation blocks the gene for glucocorticoid receptors.
Is the developmetal influence of grooming on rodents good or bad? it is neither good nor bad, it dependson the environment the individual finds itself in
What is nature component of nature vs nurture? genetics
What is the nurture component of nature vs nurture? the environmental factors
What is more important, nature or nurture? both are needed to understand behavior
What controls behavior? genetics creates behavior and the environment shapes it
What is behavioral endocrinology? scientific study of the interaction between hormones and behavior
What is a hormone? organic chemical messenger that can be made by the body
Where are hormones produced and released? by specialized cells to induce a response (behavior)
What are the systems that produce hormones? thyroid/parathyroid, adrenal galnds, pancreas, ovaries, testes
Release and role of oxytocin: releasesd by brain and impacts social interaction, and parental behavior
release and role of vasopressin released by the brain and influences water seeking and parental behavior
release and role of glucocorticoid released by adrenal galnd and influences fight or flight, vigilence, memory
release and role of growth hormone released by brain and influences dominance, pray seeking, molting/metamorphasis
release and role of prolactin released in brain and influences parental care
release and role of estradiol release everywhere and influences reward behaviors and mating
release and role of ghrelin released in stomach influences food seeking
release and role of adrenaline released in adrenal gland and influences fight and flight, agression, dispersal, fleeing
release and role of progesterone female reproductive and adrenal galnd influences mating, parental care
release and role of letin released in fat and influenced by eating and movemenet
release and role of melatonin released in brain influences sleeping and seasonality
what is the comparative experimental method? measures hormone then measures behavior and compares
What is the experimental method? remove the hormone, test behavior, reintroduce hormone and test behavior
What is the ElISA and what is it used for? it is used to measure hormones. There are antibodies on this plate that are very specific and only bind to 1 thing. So you put your sample in the wells. You also have a second set of antibodies that will glow and then you measure hte glow and compare
Why can't we only focus on hormone levels? there's so many other things such as receptors that change among an individual and change over time. there is also negative feedback systems
What makes up the nervous system? the brain, ganglia spinal cord+ nerves
What does the nervous system do? it recognizes stimuli and the nsends signals to the body through motor controls or hormones
Is hte nervous system a proximate or ultimate cause of behavior? proximate mechanisms because it is an immediate change
How do brains vary? size, shape, pieces, orientations
What does the hypothalamus do? hormone control
What does the medulla do? controls basil bodily functions
What does the cortex do? reward center
what does the hippocampus control? memory
what does the amygdala do? fear/agression
What is the command center hypothesis? certain areas of the nervous system control different facets and only one can work at once. He determined this by studying mantis and the segmented ganglia
What is learning? the aquisition of knowledge through experience, observation, or being taught
who can you learn by? anyone aroung you (conspecific or not), yourself, an individual that has some investment in you
What are three learning types trial and error, observation, taught
What is trail and error type of learning generally learned for self
what is observation/imitation watching someone else
what is being taught someone with an investment
what are pros for trial and error might not be anyone around, no external cost, may trust yourself more
what are cons for trial and error dangerous, time consuming, waste resources, energetically expensive
what are pros for observation/imitation safer, saves time, known outcome, starting place
what are cons of observation/imitation available example, may learn wrong, may waste time, need to understand behavior, may not realize consequences when wrong
what are the pros of being taught know/understand behavior/trusted teacher/safer and saves time
what are te cons of being taught time consume to teacher and waste of time/resources
What are some roximate methods of learning? method(availability of teachers), reward of behavior (mate,food,life), Brain size (resources) Genetics (ZENK in birds)
What are some ultimate influences of learning? influence survival by foraging, attracting mates, what your predators are, territory boundaries
What is imprinting? most basic form of learning
What is the bluetit great tit learning by observation results? foraging behavior wasa dependent more on who their behavioral parent was than genetics. and the effect was stronger for the great tits
What is memory? stored learned behavior
What are the three parts of teaching: 1. knowledgeable individual modifies its own behavior in the presence of a naive individual 2. knowledgeable individual incurs some cost by modifying its behavior. 3. naive individual learns as a results of knkowledgeable individual's behavior
teaching and evolution: learning is absolutely critical to survival, opportunity for observation is lacking, ineffective, or costly, and teachersderive some benefits from teaching others
What is culture? learned information is passed from one individual to another
how does culture differ from teaching? culture is generational and doenst have to have a purposeful change/costly change in behavior
Created by: kenzigustafson