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NUR111 Unit 2

TermDefinition
enuresis bed wetting
bruxism night time tooth grinding
nociceptor sensory receptor for painful stimuli
hypothalamus the brain's pain control center
neuropathic pain pain resulting from nerve malfunction, internal disease, or infection
nociceptive pain pain resulting from external stimuli upon healthy tissues
somatic pain sharp pain from injury to skin and muscle tissues
visceral pain dull, deep pain from internal body
acute pain pain that is sudden and typically results from injury
referred pain pain felt in an area different from site of injury/illness
chronic pain pain associated with disease and lasts >6 months
chronic recurrent pain periods of intense pain with periods of remission, i.e. migraines
chronic intractable pain pain that is always present with varying intensity, i.e. back pain
chronic progressive pain pain that worsens over time, i.e. rheumatoid arthritis
central pain pain from damage to CNS, typically felt as pins and needles
phantom pain pain felt in body part no longer there (amputated site)
psychogenic pain pain with no physical cause; psychological issue
incident pain breakthrough pain associated with an event or activity, such as changing a wound dressing
idiopathic pain pain with no identifiable cause
end of dose pain pain experienced after pain medication wears off
hypoxemia low oxygen concentration in blood
tachypnea rapid/shallow respirations at >20 per minute
hypoxia oxygen deficit in body tissues
bradypnea slow or inconsistent respirations at <10 per minute
apnea lack of breathing
sleep apnea sleep disorder characterized by 5 or more periods of apnea in an hour, lasting 10-20 seconds per episode
dyspnea labored breathing or shortness of breath
hyperventilation rapid and deep breathing, risk for low CO2 levels in blood
hypoventilation slow and shallow breathing, risk for low O2 in blood
orthopnea shortness of breath when laid flat
Kassmaul breathing deep, rapid expirations, risk for low CO2
Cheyne-Stokes breathing slow, shallow breathing with periods of apnea; risk for low O2, common with opiate overdose
Biot respirations shallow breathing with apnea, risk for low O2
eupnea normal, unlabored breathing
V-Q ratio ratio of ventilation to perfusion; used to assess ability for O2 to move across alveolar-capillary membrane
reticular activating system (RAS) bundle of nerves in brainstem that mediates level of consciousness
parasomnia unusual behaviors exhibited during sleep
perception the cognitive interpretation of stimuli and inputs
cognition a complex set of mental activities through which we acquire, process, retrieve, and apply information
neurotransmitters chemical messengers that carry motor or sensory information across synapses or junctions
attention the ability to remain alert and aware while focusing on a stimulus or mental event
memory the retention, storing, and retrieval of previous experience
communication the ability to receive, interpret, and express information
social cognition the ability to correctly process and apply social information
motor coordination the planning, organizing, and execution of complex motor tasks
executive function the mental skills involved in planning and executing complex tasks
intellectual function the mental capacity to learn, reason, and problem solve
confusion a cognitive deficit characterized by difficulty making judgements, thinking clearly, or focusing attention
psychosis a break from reality
delusions a false belief that is fixed and rigid
hallucinations sensing things that are not really there; may be seen, heard, tasted, smelled, or felt
illusion a distorted perception of what is there
amnesia the loss of recent or remote memory
confabulation an event fabricated by someone experiencing cognitive impairment
agnosia the inability to properly recognize or identify an object
aphasia inability to understand or use language
anomia the inability to "name" things; may be early sign of progressive degenerative disorder or just a temporary lapse of memory
alogia lack of or impoverished speech
dyspraxia difficulty acquiring motor coordination skills
apraxia altered speech from impaired motor function
ataxia lack of balance and coordination
tic sudden, involuntary and non-rhythmic repetitive motion; can be vocal
carphalogia lint picking; seen in dementia patients
echolasia repeated words or phrases that are meaningless to situation
tremors unintentional rhythmic shaking
dyskinesia classification of movement disorders related to impaired motor coordination
akathisia restlessness leading to repetitive rocking, pacing, etc
akinesia difficulty initiating movement
bradykinesia slow movement as result of motor impairment
dystonia acute episode of muscle contraction
avolution decreased motivation or inability to initiate goal-directed activity
Down Syndrome congenital disorder marked by third copy of genetic information on 21st chromosome
Fragile X Syndrome congenital disorder marked by X chromosome being susceptible to damage; related to folic acid deficiency during early pregnancy
delirium acute state of confusion that is temporary and reversible; often associated with lack of oxygen, hydration, food, or sleep
dementia a neural degenerative disease marked by chronic confusion and progressive loss of cognitive function
sundowning changes in cognition associated with evening/night time
Created by: Lauren_IBCLC