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Biology test #13

biology study guide for module thirteen

TermDefinition
Vertebrae Segments of bone or some other hard substance that are arranged into a backbone
Notochord A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature’s body, providing the majority of its support
Endoskeleton A skeleton on the inside of a creature’s body, typically composed of bone or cartilage
Bone marrow A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
Axial skeleton The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular skeleton The portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
Closed circulatory system A circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels
Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Veins Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Olfactory lobes The lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the nose
Cerebrum The lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature’s response to that information
Optic lobes The lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the eyes
Cerebellum The lobe that controls involuntary actions and refines muscle movement
Medulla oblongata The lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal cord
Internal fertilization The process by which the male places sperm inside the female’s body, where the eggs are fertilized
External fertilization The process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
Oviparous development Development that occurs in an egg that is hatched outside the female’s body
Ovoviviparous development Development that occurs in an egg that is hatched inside the female’s body
Viviparous development Development that occurs inside the female, allowing the offspring to gain nutrients and vital substances from the mother through a placenta
Anadromous A life cycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water as adults, and then go back to fresh water in order to reproduce
Bile A mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat
Atrium A heart chamber that receives blood
Ventricle A heart chamber from which blood is pumped out
Ectothermic Lacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat
Hibernation A state of extremely low metabolism and respiration, accompanied by lower-thannormal body temperatures
Assign the frog to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Class Amphibia
Assign the shark to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Class Chondrichthyes
Assign the Lancelet to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Subphylum Cephalochordata
Assign the Carp to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Class Osteichthyes
Assign the Sea squirt to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Subphylum Urochordata
Assign the Lamprey eel to one of these classifications: subphylum Urochordata, subphylum Cephalochordata, class Agnatha, class Chondrichthyes, class Osteichthyes, class Amphibia Class Agnatha
What do sea squirts, lampreys, and amphibians have in common? They all go through metamorphosis from larva to adult.
What is the difference between cartilage and bone? Bone is made of collagen fibers that have been hardened with calcium, while cartilage is not hardened. Thus, cartilage is more flexible and weaker than bone.
You see a blood vessel from a creature. You have no idea what creature and you have no idea where it came from. You do notice, however, that the blood vessel wall is very thin. What kind of blood vessel is this? Capillaries have thin walls to allow for the diffusion of gases. Thus, this is, most likely, a capillary.
What do red blood cells do? Red blood cells carry oxygen in the blood.
What protein gives red blood cells their color? Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their color.
Frogs and toads are quite uncoordinated. They move their muscles in a very jerky manner. Which brain lobe is small in amphibians? The cerebellum refines muscle movement. A creature that has uncoordinated, jerky muscle movements has a small cerebellum. Thus, an amphibian has a small cerebellum.
An owl has very sensitive vision. Which brain lobes are larger in the owl compared to the “average” vertebrate? Vertebrates have enlarged lobes if the creature has a particular aptitude for the function controlled by the lobe. Since owls have good eyesight, their optic lobes are enlarged.
A creature reproduces when the female receives sperm from the male and then lays an egg which hatches. Is fertilization internal or external? What kind of development is this? Fertilization is internal, because the female takes the sperm in to form the zygote, which is then encased in the egg. Development is oviparous, because the egg hatches externally.
Which has the most inflexible skeleton: a ray, a lamprey, or a salmon? The stronger the skeleton, the less flexible it is. Lampreys and rays both have cartilaginous skeletons, but the salmon is a bony fish. Thus, the salmon’s skeleton is less flexible.
What do Atlantic salmon and many lampreys have in common? Atlantic salmon and many lamprey are anadromous.
What is the shark’s most sensitive means of finding prey? The shark’s most sensitive means of finding prey is its electrical field sensor.
What function does the lateral line perform in sharks and bony fish? The lateral line senses vibrations in the water.
What function do the dorsal fins perform in both sharks and bony fish? What function does the anterior dorsal fin play only in bony fish? In both sharks and bony fish, the dorsal fins are used for balance in the water. In bony fish, the anterior dorsal fin is also a defensive weapon, because it is hard and sharp.
What is the major difference between the tail of a ray and the tail of a skate? Rays have thin, whiplike tails, while skates have thicker, fleshy tails.
List the six common characteristics of amphibians. *a Their endoskeleton is made mostly of bone. Their skin is smooth with many capillaries and pigments. Amphibians do not have scales.
List the six common characteristics of amphibians. *b They usually have two pairs of limbs with webbed feet. They have as many as four organs of respiration. They have a three-chambered heart. They are oviparous with external fertilization.
What is the difference between a toad and a frog? Frogs have smooth, wet skin and live near water. Toads have dry, warty skin and need not live near water.
For most amphibians, what is the major respiratory organ? The major respiratory organ for most amphibians is the skin.
Created by: abigaileah