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Astronomy - Unit

Astronomy - Unit 1 - Gullett

TermDefinition
autumnal equinox the equinox in the fall from which time moving forward the amount of daylight begins to shorten, approximately September 22nd in the Northern Hemisphere and March 20 in Southern Hemisphere
celestial equator the projection of the Earth's equator on the celestial sphere
celestial sphere a sky map that is the apparent hollow sphere of the sky
constellation an entire area of the celestial sphere and all the objects in it
declination the equivalent to latitude on Earth on the celestial sphere and measured from 0 degrees to 90 degrees north or south of the celestial equator
equinox either of two days a year when the sun's path crosses the celestial equator with exactly 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night everywhere on Earth
vernal equinox the equinox in the spring from which time moving forward the amount of daylight begins to lengthen, approximately March 20th in the Northern Hemisphere and September 22 in Southern Hemisphere
lunar eclipse an eclipse in which the moon appears darkened as it passes into the earth's shadow
lunar phases any one of the different aspects or appearances of the moon as seen from Earth
partial eclipse an eclipse of a celestial body in which only part of the luminary is obscured or darkened
precession the small circular motion of the Earth's axis due to the combined forces of gravity from sun and rotation of the Earth
revolution the motion of any astronomic object around another astronomical object;
solar eclipse an eclipse in which the sun is obscured by the moon.
summer solstice the day of the year in the northern hemisphere with the most daylight when the sun is at its highest point in the sky at noon
total eclipse an eclipse in which the whole of the disk of the sun or moon is obscured.
winter solstice the day of the year in the norther hemisphere with the least daylight when the sun is at its lowest point in the shy at noon.
asterism a pattern of stars usually incorporating one or more bright stars that have names and are used for orientation
right ascension the equivalent of longitude on Earth on the celestial sphere, measured from 0 hour to 24 hours around the celestial equator
solstice either of two times a year when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days of the year
umbra the part of the shadow where all direct light is blocked and is the darkest part of the shadow
penumbra the part of the shadow where only some of the light is blocked and is the lighter part of the shadow
scientific theory an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be tested and verified and offers an explanation of "how" or "why"
scientific law a statement that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena that can be tested and verified and describes "what"
geocentric view the view that all heavenly bodies revolve around the Earth
heliocentric model the model that describes the movement of the planets around the sun
retrograde motion the apparent reverse movement of objects such as planets in the sky over time.
Copernicus developed the first heliocentric model of the universe
Kepler mathematically described the motion of the planets based on the heliocentric model of the universe
Galileo know for the "law of falling bodies" he also made observations of the night sky using a telescope
Newton known for the laws of motion and developed calculus to mathematically explain the motion of all heavenly bodies
Created by: lpgullett