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Biology Ch. 7

TermDefinition
Cell Basic unit of all forms of life.
Cell Theory Fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells.
Cell Membrane Thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
Nucleus Structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
Eukaryote Organism whose cells contain a nucleus.
Prokaryote Unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus.
Cytoplasm In eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all the cells' contents.
Organelle Specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell.
Vaculoe Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Lysosome Cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.
Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement.
Centriole Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
Ribosome Cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled.
Golgi Apparatus organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
Chloroplast Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
Mitochondrion Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
Cell Wall Strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells.
Lipid Bilayer Flexible double-layered sheet that make up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
Selective Permeable Property of biological membranes that allow some substances to pass across it while others cannot; also called semipermeable membrane.
Diffusion Process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
Facilitated diffusion Process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels.
Aquaporin Water channel protein in a cell.
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Isotonic When the concentration of two solutions is the same.
Hypertonic When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
Hypotonic When comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
Osmotic Pressure Pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane.
Homeostasis Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain.
Tissue Group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Organ Group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
Organ System Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
Receptor on or in a cell. a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone.
Created by: rhacker