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Intro to anatomy


What are the descending layers of skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
What is proprioception? The ability to sense stimuli arising within the body regarding motion, position and equilibrium.
What are the two types of sweat glands? Merocrine (acidic) sweat glands and Apocrine (alkaline) sweat glands
Describe the pattern of Langer's lines in limbs. Spiral Longitudinally
Describe the pattern of Langer's lines in the thorax and abdomen. Lie horizontally (transversely)
How do incisions relate to Langer's lines? Incisions are much better if made parallel to the tension lines.
What are fascia? connective tissue forming layers of variable thickness in all regions of the body
What is superficial fascia? Found immediately beneath the skin
What is deep fascia? Envelops organs and tissues and includes the sheets of fibrous tissue that encloses muscle and muscle groups and separate them into layers.
What is included in the axial skeleton? Skull, vertebrae including sacrum, ribs and sternum.
What is included in the appendicular skeleton? Bones of the upper and lower limbs including the scapula and clavicle and hip bone.
What is included in the CNS? Brain and spinal cord
What is included in the PNS? Cranial and spinal nerves
What can the sensory (afferent) system be subdivided into? Somatic sensory and visceral sensory.
What can the motor (efferent) system be subdivided into? Somatic motor and visceral motor.
What can the visceral motor system be further subdivided into? Parasympathetic (relaxation) and sympathetic (fight or flight)
What is the enteric nervous system? Mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract
What does a typical neuron consist of? Soma, axon and dendrites
What is an axon? Is single, can be as long as 1m, covered with myelin or Schwann cell.
Describe the structure of the spinal cord. In the spinal canal, arranged segmentally, 33(ish) pairs of nerves
What are the descending layers of the CNS? Dura mater, Arachnoid mater and Pia mater
What are the descending spaces of the CNS? Extra-dural (haematoma), Sub-dural (haematoma) and Sub-arachnoid (Cerebrospinal fluid and haematoma)
What does the PNS consist of? 33 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves
What does the 33 pairs of spinal nerves subdivide into? 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1-4 Coccygeal
Describe the role of the somatic nervous system. Innervates skeletal muscles, skin, oral and nasal cavities
Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system. Controls the functions of smooth muscles, glands and internal organs and blood vessels. Relays sensory information from these to the CNS Can be divided in to parasympathetic and sympathetic
Where are the cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system located? The lateral horn of T1-L2 spinal cord segments.
Where are the cell bodies of the parasympathetic nervous system located? The brain stem or S2-4 spinal cord segments.
Created by: robertspedding



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