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chapter 2 Anat. Phys

terms to learn

chemistry is all about matter and the study of matter
periodic table there are twenty that are necessary for life
matter anything that takes up space
water 65% of who you are is water
atom center of atom is nucleus which consists of protons and neutrons and electrons float around
protons are positive charge
neutrons are neutral charges
electrons are negative charges
ions a charged particle carries a charge
ionic bond occurs when a positive and negative charges / ions come together and neutralizes charge they balance each other out
covalent bond when you have elements that are negatively charged but they share the bond / electrons equally
molecule is formed when you have two or more atoms that come together
compound two or more different elements that come together
acid is a substance that will give hydrogen off
base is an ion that will accept hydrogen
ph measures how much concentration of hydrogen in a solution
ph scale measures from 0 to 14 (zero to fourteen) 50% hydrogen concentration 7 is the exact middle (neutral) example pure distilled water is 7 anything less than that is acidic anything more is basic
buffer is a solution that prevents a change in the ph balance
carbohydrates organic substance that provide energy for cellular activities and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids organic substance that are insoluble in water and include fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
saturated fatty acids steak beef butter
unsaturated fatty acids salmon, olive oil, better for you they digest different
phospholipids body uses to make the cell wall
proteins what the structure of a protein is and how you break it down
primary structure long chain of amino acids
secondary structure long chain of amino acids pleated or twisted into a coil
Tertiary more pleats and twists into a globular form looks like a glob
Quaternary two or more strands join into a larger molecule
protein breakdown when your body breaks it down its opposite and starts from 4, 3, 2, 1 (quaternary, tertiary, secondary, primary)
conformations determine how proteins function
denaturation disruption of a proteins shape by ph
Nucleic acids are RNA, DNA, ATP
DNA Heredity material and a chromotin
ATP energy
cell membrane is made up of many phospholipids entire outside layer (skin) is phospholipids
Nucleus where your DNA is stored
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) synthesis protein what makes it rough are ribosomes they build a protein a long chain of amino acids
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) synthesizes lipids it makes the lipids
Golgi apparatus grabs newly formed amino acid edits chains allows it to fold then delivers it, it is like the protein protector you need protein because they do everything
mitochondria produces energy in the form of ATP
Note think of a cell as if is a city and you have to get rid of the trash
peroxisome destroys junk-waste and breaks it down
lysosomes has two functions it can destroy the waste it can recycle it
flagellum is like a propeller it pushes a cell forward example-sperm
cilia are hair like structure that allows the cell to attached and move a little bit
cytoskeleton it gives the cell its structure or hold its shapes