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8/24 Cell Biology

Lecture 2: Chapter 4 USDFall2018 Dr. Karen Koster

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 domains of life? Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya
What are the 2 prokaryote branches? Archaea and Bacteria
What are some characteristics of both archaea and baacteria? few internal membranes, DNA is found in circular chromosomes, and nonhomoggenious
What are some characteristics of eukaryotic cells? Compartments formed by internal membranes and DNA is in linear chromsomes
What are some limitations of cell size? requirement for adequate surface area relative to volume, rates at which molecules can diffuse, need to maintain adequat local concentrations of substances required for necessary cellular functions
How is the need for local concentrations overcame in cells? compartmentation to allow reactions that may be difficult in large open sapces
How is the rate at which molecules can diffuse in a cell overcome? carier proteins in the cytoplasm, vesicle transport, and cytoplasmic streaming
Where is chromatin found? in the nucleus
What is a nucleolus? part of the chromatin specialized for assembly of ribosomes
What are nuclear pores? channels that regulate passage through envelope
What domain of life has nucleus and organelles? eukaryotes
What domain(s) of life have Actin/tublin like proteins? All
What domain(s) of life go thorugh exocytosis and endocytosis? Eukaryotes
What domain(s) of life have cell wall? All (animals don't have cell wall)
What domain(s) of life use binary fission for cell division? bacteria and archaea
What domain(s) of life use mitosis and meiosis? Eukaryotes
What domain(s) have circular DNA? bacteria, archaea
What domain(s) have linear DNA? Eukaryotes
What domain(s) have 70S ribosomes? Bacteria and Archaea
What domain(s) have 80s ribosomes? Eukaryotes
What domain(s) of life have membrane phospholipids? All
What is the endoplasmic reticulum? Scas/tubes that extend throughout the cytoplasm and connect to outer membrane
What is the space within the ER? lumen
What is the entire sac within the ER? cisternae
What is the difference between rough and smooth ER? rough ER has ribosomes that synthesize proteins
What is the function of the smooth ER? breakdown and synthesize lipids
If you added ribosomes to smooth Er would it be rough? No, because it still has its own function and the ribosomes wouldn't stick because the smooth ER doesn't have the proteins for them to attach.
What happens in the golgi apparatus? proteins and lipids are modified here?
What is the golgi apparatus considered? a shipping and receiving center
What is the golgi and ER together alled? endomembrane system
What is a lysosome? membrane vesicle in the animal cell that contians digestive enzymes
What are the ribosome sizes of Eukaryotes? 80s
What are the ribosome sizes of Prokaryotes? 70s
What is the function of ribosomes? protein synthesis
What are microbodies? small membrane-bound organelles that carry out oxidative reactions
What are peroxisomes? makes peroxide tne detoxify (microbodies)
What are glyoxysomes? convert oil to sucrose (used by some lipids0
What is a mitochondria? complex organelle with endosymbiotic origin from porokaryotic cell
What ribosomes are found in the mitochondria? 70S
What is the main function of the mitochondria? oxidize organic molecules to release energy for the rest of the cell basically converts energy
What is the size of a mitochondria? .5 by 2 micrometers or 3 by 10 micrometers
Is plasma membrane the same as cell membrane? nope
What is the membrane in Eukaryotes? plasma membrane
Created by: kenzigustafson