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Chpt 1-Cell Biology

Chapter 1: A Preview of Cell Biology USDFall2018 Dr. Koster

What is the basic unit of biology? The cell
What did Hooke do in 1665? He coined "cells"
How did Hooke coin the term "cells"? By looking at a cork and seeing the cell walls of dead plant tissue
Who was Antonie van Leuwenhoek? He advanced the microscope and was the first to view living cells
What did van Leuwenhoek view? the first living cells: Blook, sperm, bacteria, and 1 celled organisms
What were the two factors restricting advancement in microscopes? Limited resolution(resolving power) and the restricted descriptive nature of 17th century biology
Define Resolving power. The ability to see fine details
What happened in the 1830s? Able to see structures 1 micrometer in size
Who was Robert Brown? Found that plant cells have a "nucleus"
What are the 3 main points of cell theory? 1. All organisms consit of one or more cells 2. The cell is the basic unt of structure for all organisms 3. All cells arise only from preexisting cells
What was the first strand of cell biology? cytology
Define Cytology. Study of cells and their structures
When did cytology first come about? 3 centuries ago thanks to light microscopes
What is the nanometer (nm)? Unit of choice for molecules and subcellular structures too small to be seen using a light microscope
In comparison to a meter, how big is a nm? one-billionth of a meter (10^-9)
How many nanometers in a micrometer? 1 micrometer=1000nm
What is the diameter of a robosome? 25-30 nm
What is an Angstrom? smaller than a nm
What is an Angstrom used to measure? demensions within proteins and DNA molecules
What does 1 Angstrom equal? 0.1 nm; about the size of a hydrogen atom
What should you use to view eukaryotic cells? light microscope
What should be used to view a nucleus? light microscope
What should be used to view mitochondria and chloroplasts? light microscope
What is the limit of resolution? how far apart adjacent objects must be to appear as separate entitites
What is resolving power? ability to see fine details
A small limit of resolution means a ________ resolving power. large
What is brightfield microscopy? white light being passed directly through a speciment that is either stained or unstained and the background is illuminated
What are the limitations of brightfield microscopy? the specimens often msut be chemically fixed and are no longer alize
What is phase-contrast and differnetial interference contrast microscopy? made viewing living cells possible
What is phase of light? prcise positions of maxima nad minima as light traveles
Created by: kenzigustafson