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Honors Biology HW #1

Vocab Terms

Adaption Structures, physiological processes, or behaviors that aid in survival, and reproduction in a particular environment. Adaptations change over time due to the animal’s surroundings to develop stronger animals.
Atom The smallest particle of an element that still holds the properties of that element. Example: A diamond is made up of carbon, so the smallest unit of a diamond is one unit of carbon.
Autotroph An organism able to create its own energy using chemicals or light to synthesize inorganic matter into organic matter; plants use a process called photosynthesis to take in sunlight and store it in molecules; only plant cells have chloroplasts
Binomial System An internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species.
Biodiversity The diversity of species and the interactions that sustain them.
Cell The smallest unit of life. All living things are made up of cells. There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Robert Hooke is credited for discovering the cell by looking at cork through a microscope.
Cell Theory States that the cell is the fundamental unit of living matter; credited by two scientists in the 1830’s: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Chromosomes A single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA.
Community Different populations that interact with one another
Conclusion A summary based on evidence or facts
Control In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison
Cytoplasm The material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusively the nucleus. It holds the organelles in place and gives the cell its shape by filling in the remaining space in the cell.
Deductive reasoning the process of making a hypothesis based on a scientific theory
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Contains the hereditary information of all known forms of life
Domain A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
Element What forms all matter. Elements cannot be broken down.
Energy The ability to do work or the use of metabolic capacities in organisms to convert some combination of light, biomass (total mass in a living organism), organic compounds, gases, and water into useful chemical-bond energy.
Eukaryotic The type of cell that contains internal structures surrounded by a membrane; domain: Eukaryota or Eukarya; evolved from Prokaryotic cells; made up of many organelles: nucleus, ribosomes, lysosome, etc; all animals are Eukaryotic
Evolution A scientific theory that states that all life currently on Earth came from pre-existing life forms, with modification.
Experiment The procedure of conducting a test which will give information and results which can determine if the hypothesis is correct and create a conclusion.
Gene A segment of DNA located in a particular place on a chromosome that encodes the information for amino acid sequence of a protein, and and hence particular traits.
Heterotroph An organism that feeds off of other organisms.
Homeostasis The internal environment remains constant although the environment changes. (ex. organisms balance the amount of salt and water they have in them)
Hypothesis A supposition based on previous observations that is offered as an explanation for the observed phenomenon and is used as the basis for further observations, or experiments.
Inductive reasoning The process of creating a generalization, coupled with an absence of observations that contradict it.
Kingdom The 6 subdivisions used to classify organisms from the three primary domains; plantae,animalia, fungi, protista,eubacteria, archaebacteria.
Molecule Atoms that form together to produce other substances. (ex: two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom forms one molecule of water)
Multicellular Many-celled
Mutation A change in the base sequence of DNA in a gene
Natural causality All events can be traced to natural causes that are potentially within our ability to comprehend
Natural Selection The unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental influences, this results in the conservation of all favorable adaptations.
Nucleus A membrane-enclosed sac containing the cell’s genetic material
Nutrient The materials an organism needs to survive, they are gathered from the air, water, soil, or other living things
Observation Specific information taken from a primary source that can start a prediction. (ex. the texture of a chemical, the temperature of a substance)
Organ Different tissues combine to form organs, such as a stomach or kidney.
Organelle A structure found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that performs a very specific role, such as the nucleus or mitochondria.
Organic Molecule Complex molecules can only be created in living things. They form life. Organic molecules are based on a framework of carbon with some hydrogen.
Organism A living things made up of 1 or more cells that generally have more than one organ system.
Organ System Organs of the same function such as the digestive system or respiratory system.
Photosynthesis The process in which plants and some organisms convert light energy(low energy inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide and water) into chemical energy(high energy organic molecules like carbohydrates).
Plasma membrane A thin layer inside a cell that surrounds and encloses the cytoplasm.
Population A group of organisms of the same species.
Prediction A statement based off the hypothesis given in, “If…...then” format that is used to offer an answer the the question. It is later tested by experiments.
Prokaryotic Cells that lack internal surfaces surrounded by membrane; these cells are found to have no organelles and no true nucleus but they still contain DNA; small in size and less compressed
Question The second step of the Scientific Method, which is asked because of the observation, or what the scientist is going to investigate(ex. Observation- Car won't start, Question- Why won't the car start?)
Scientific Method Rigorous procedure for making observations of specific phenomena and searching for the order underlying those phenomena.
Scientific Theory A general explanation of natural phenomena developed through extensive and reproducible observations.
Species Organisms of the same type that are capable of breeding with one another.
Tissue Tissues are formed when cells of the same type combine (ex. muscles are tissue that are formed from cells)
Unicellular Single-celled, or to only have one cell.
Variable Not consistent or having a fixed pattern; liable to change.
Created by: rebeccamichaelss
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