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Enviro Site Assess

Enviro Site Assess For Final

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between phase 1 and phase 2 site assessments? Phase 1 is a paperwork-based phase to identify potential or existing contamination, and phase 2 is when samples or collected.
What are the five basic steps of a phase 1 site assessment? Scope, site history, site visit, interviews, and written report
Which step of a phase 1 site assessment takes the longest? site history
What is the scope of an assessment? The scope is an outline of the exact proceedings
What details must be included under scope? Client name Property name,legal location Activities to be completed Enhancements to the requirements(risk evaluation, remediation recommendations) Price
What details might you include under site history? Previous assessments, air photos, company records, regulations/permits/violations, land titles, any oil or gas sites upstream, all previous owners, soil/geology/groundwater info
What is the purpose of site history? To collect information on past activities that may have contributed any contaminants.
What things should you consider when doing a site history search? Adjacent property activities (past or present), any proposed rezoning or future activities.
What things are considered optional under site history? Lease/purchase agreements, land use documents, soil or topo maps, public health concerns, utility records, local info.
What information can be found under the spatial information system? Land titles, documents, survey plans, township plans, field notes, AB survey control markers, assessment rolls.
When should you do a site visit? After the Site history
What does the site assessment entail? Ground truthing
What are the parts of a legal site description? quarter/subdivision, section, township, range, meridian
How can you differentiate between township and range? Townships can go higher than 30, or may be denoted by a 0 in front. The range is closest to the meridian.
Where could you obtain an air photo? Libraries, universities, federal and provincial agencies, city archives.
Why would fire insurance maps be an important thing to include in site history? They may include any fire hydrants or any chemicals on site that would make a fire worse.
Where would any information regarding spills be found? Under company records
Why would you want a well record? To find out any yield tests and the groundwater depth (static water level)
What does LBP mean? Lead based paint
What are BTEX compounds? benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene
What is a PHC petroleum based hydrocarbon
What chemical is associated with batteries? lead
What chemical is assicated with wood treatment? phenols
What chemicals are associated with oil and gas sites? BTEX, salt water, H2S, PHC
What does F1-F4 describe? The number of carbons. 1 is lower 4 is highest, starting at 6 carbons.
What are three examples of VOC? BTEX, formaldehyde, chlorinated solvents
What are dioxins used for and why are they bad? Dioxins are used in paper mills, pesticides, municipal wastes. they are mutagens, carcinogens, teratogens.
Why is agent orange? An herbicide which contains TCDD, dangerous due to its chlorination.
What is a PAH? Give three examples. A PAH is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Examples include napthalene, anthracene, and phenanthracene.
Where would PAHs be found? Dyes, wood treatments, plastics, pesticides, incomplete combustion
Why would copper be dangerous? Toxic in high amounts, can bioaccumulate in essential organs,
When would copper be used? Piping, germicides, alloys, wood treating.
Why would chromium be dangrous? Hexavelent chromium is toxic,
When would chromium be used? Dyes, paints, tanning, wood treating.
Why would high concentrations of salt be dangerous? Increases conductivity, stressed plants.
Why would barium be dangerous? Is an irritant, sometimes toxic.
When would barium be used? Can be found naturally, used as a weight additive with oil and gas.
What is a PCB? Polychlorinated biphenyl
When would PCBs be used? Oils and fluids
Why is radon dangerous? It is a radioactive carcinogen which is naturally released from uranium decay
Why are electromagnetic fields dangerous? Can cause cancers, brain issues.
Give an example of an ODS(ozone depleting substance) Many fire extinguisher chemicals (CFC, halon), R-22 refridgerant(HCFC)
Why is Urea formaldehyde foam insulation a problem? When wet, it releases formaldehyde, which is toxic and a carcinogen.
Name three wood preservatives. Creosote, PCP, CCA(copper chrominated aresenate)
Name a common dry cleaning solvent. PERC- perchloroethene
In general, what do all contaminants have in common? Most are toxic, carcinodenic, mutagenic, and many are organic.
F1 PHCs are associated with which substance? Gasoline
F2 PHCs are associated with which substance? Diesel
F3 and F4 PHCs are associated with which substance? Crude Oil/Motor Oil
name two CFCs and their residence times CFC 11- trichlorfluoromethane - 50 yr residence CFC 12- dichlorofluoroethane - 100 yr residence
Where could you find information about USTs? PTMAA
What are the major contamination concerns associated with landfills? Methane gas migration and leachate seepage.
What is acid mine drainage? Pyrite oxidation causes water to acidify.
What tragedy lead to the birth of ESAs? Love Canal
What legislation in AB corresponds to ESAs? EPEA and Water Act
What are the two conclusions that a phase I ESA can come to? There is no reason to suspect contamination, or a phase II ESA is needed.
Differentiate between ESA and EIA. ESA looks for specific evidence EIA looks to make predictions
What are three reasons an ESA might be conducted? Financial, legal, or environmental reasons.
Who requires an ESA? Anyone involved in property transaction.
What don't phase I ESA standards apply to? Environmental audits or management systems.
Differentiate between upstream, midstream, and downstream oil/gas industries. Upstream deals with extraction, midstream deals with refining, and downstream deals with distribution.
What additional things must you include as part of an ESA for an upstream site? Lease survey diagrams, list of available air photos, and drilling records.
What is a wellhead? The end of a wellbore visible on the surface.
What are three types of drilling mud? Water-based Advanced gel Hydrocarbon-based
What might you have to worry about with advanced gel chem? The salinity
What are three functions of drilling mud? Particle removal, wellbore stability, and wall building characteristics.
What are three common weighting agents. barium sulfide, calcium carbonate, and galena
Give an example of a lost circulation material Nut plug
What are three common flocculants? Envirofloc, salt, lime
Name two chemicals used for alkalinity control. Caustic soda and lime
Name two chemicals used to control calcium. Caustic soda and ash
Name two corrosion inhibitors. Lime and zinc carbonate
Name two bactericides. Lime and caustic soda
How does a defoamer work? It reduces the surface tension in salt/saltwater mud systems
When might a foaming agent be used? In an air drilling operation where dust needs to be suppressed.
What is a drill stem test? Determines the productive capacity of a hydrocarbon reserve
What is the primary use of a flare pit? To burn hydrocarbons.
What are two information sources that have info about upstream oil and gas sites? AER and Abadata
As the scale increases, does the area covered increase or decrease? decreases
What are some film types used in aerial photography? B/W panchromatic Colour B/W IR False colour
What are some challenges with aerial photography? Shadows/clouds Distortion Storage issues
Which film type would be used for a vegetation study? False colour infrared, or B/W infrared
What film type is most common? B/W panchromatic
What are three reasons for conducting a Phase 1 ESA? Financial, legal reasons, and environmental reasons.
Do phase 1 site assessments apply to audits? No
Differentiate between upstream, midstream, and downstream. Upstream is extraction Midstream is refining and transportation Downstream is distribution
What are extra things you have to do as part of a Phase 1 site assessment for an upstream site? A survey diagram, list of available air photos, and drilling waste details.
What does the phase 2 ESA conceptual model consider? Contaminant properties, behaviours, and transport characteristics.
What are four phases a contaminant may exist in when released into subsurface? Vapour, aqueous, free liquid, or adsorbed.
What are examples of contaminant properties that will determine how quickly a contaminant spreads? Viscosity, solubility, vapor pressure, and density.
What range does a low solubility compound have? Less than 50 mg per litre
In general, does solubility increase or decrease as hydrocarbon molar mass increases? As molar mass increases, solubility decreases.
Will a contaminant with a low vapor pressure easily vaporize? No. High vapor pressure means high volatility and vaporization.
What vapor pressure range does a VOC have? Greater than 0.02 kPa
What does Henry's law state? The amount of gas which dissolves is proportional to the partial pressure that it exerts on a liquid.
What is Henry's Law Constant? Kh is the ratio of vapor pressure to solubility.
PAHs have high or low Kh? Low
BTEX has high or low Kh? High
Clays are likely to attract what type of contaminant? Metal and inorganic cations. This is because clay particles have a slight negative charge.
What is the distribution coefficient? Kd=soil/water Kd=Foc*Koc The distribution coefficient predicts and estimates chemical retardation/ partitioning
What is used as a surrogate for Koc? Kow
What is Kow? Octanol water coefficient
How would you calculate Foc? 0.58* (OM/100)
What is likely to happen if a contaminant has a high Kow? It will be highly water soluble and likely to migrate.
What is likely to happen if a contaminant has a low Kow? It is likely to bioaccumulate.
What Kow range constitutes low Kow? less than 500
What is the definition of risk? Risk is a measure of a contaminants ability to cause harm and how likely it is to happen.
What is a hazard? A hazard is the adverse effect that the contaminant may cause.
Why are toddlers more susceptible than adults? They ingest more soil, and have smaller weights.
Differentiate between Tier 1 and Tier 2 guidelines. Tier 1 is more generic whereas tier 2 is more site-specific.
What is the purpose of a Phase 2 ESA? To characterize the type and concentration of contaminants present.
What are the main components of a Phase 2 ESA? ESA review Plan investigation Conduct investigation Interpret/evaluate Report
Differentiate between the three soil sample strategies. Judgmental- Limited number from a target area Grid- systematic coverage Stratified- Systematic coverage of a target area
Differentiate between the two types of soil samples. Discrete- Used to determine concentrations Composite, a mixed sample used to determine if a contaminant is present.
Would you store organics or heavy metals in glass? No, they can absorb into the plastic.
Why is it important to preserve samples? Bacteria growth and death can affect what you are measuring; precipitates may form.
To remove chlorine from a sample, what would you add? Thiosulfate
Created by: swilson67