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A&P Introduction

Eponyms: •a person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named or thought to be named. •a name or noun formed after a person.
Acronyms: •an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word (e.g., ASCII, NASA ).
History of words: • The translation of a lot of science terms came from Latin and Greek branches.
Roots: Tension, Thermo, Glyco, Dermo Cardio, Pneumo, Nephron, Hepato Arthro
Suffixes: -itis, -cyte,- emia, -oid, -ase,-opathy -phobia, -scopy
Prefixes: Hyper-, Hypo-, Intra-, Inter-, Epi- , Endo- Peri-, Pseudo-
Body Regions: Cephalic, Cervical, Thoracic, Abdominal Pelvic, Shoulder, Axilla, Arm (brachial) Elbow, Cubital, Forearm (antebrachial), Wrist (Carpus), Hand (manual), Digits Inguinal
Metric System Meter (about a yard) Gram (paper clip) Liter (quart) Kilo (1000) Deci( 1/10 or 0.1) Milli (1/1,000 or 0.001) Micro (1/1,000,000 or 0.000001)
Body Positions •Prone •Supine •Lateral Recumbent •Standard
Body Directions: •Right-left •Superior •Inferior •Anterior •Posterior •Ventral •Dorsal •Medial •Lateral •Proximal •Distal
Cephalic Region (head): or cranial region (skull) is at the top of the body and visible from the front and rear.
Cervical Region (Neck): or cranial region (skull) is at the top of the body and visible from the front and rear.
Dorsal Region (the back): (back) runs from immediately below the neck down to the area below the waist. It doesn’t include the shoulders. It’s visible from the rear.
Thorax Region: starts immediately below the neck, at the clavicles, and ends along the bottom of the ribcage. It’s visible from the front.
Abdominal Region: The abdomen starts along the bottom of the ribcage and extends to the hips. It’s visible from the front.
Pelvic Region: The pelvis starts where the abdomen ends and takes up the area between the hip bones. The perineum is between the thighs so very little is visible in the anatomical position.
Superior: Closer to the top of the head. For example, the nose is superior to the chin. Cephalic is similar, also meaning toward the head.
Inferior: Closer to the feet. The chin is inferior to the nose. Caudal is similar to inferior, but it refers to the “tail,” or where the tail would be if people had them.
Anterior: Closer to the front of the body. For instance, the abdominal muscles are anterior to the spine. Ventral is similar to anterior; it means toward the abdomen.
Posterior: Closer to the rear. The spine is posterior to the abdominal muscles. The term dorsal has a similar meaning as posterior.
Median: At the midline of the body. The nose is a median structure.
Medial: Closer to the midline of the body. The big toe is medial to the little toe.
Lateral: Farther away from the middle. For example, the little toe is lateral to the big toe.
Proximal: Closer to the trunk or closer to the point of origin. The shoulder is proximal to the elbow.
Distal: Farther from the trunk or from the point of origin. The elbow is distal to the shoulder.
Superficial: Closer to the surface. For instance, the skin is superficial to the muscles.
Intermediate: In between. The abdominal muscles are intermediate between the skin and the small intestines.
Deep: Farther from the surface. The abdominal muscles are deep to the skin.
Unilateral: On only one side of the body, like the stomach and liver.
Bilateral: On both the left and right sides of the body, such as the eyes, the kidneys, and the arms and legs.
Midsagittal plane: This division is a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right halves.
Sagittal planes: These vertical planes are parallel to the midsagittal plane and divide the body into unequal left and right portions. There are many possible sagittal planes, so you should always give a reference point where the plane passes through.
Frontal (coronal) planes: These vertical planes pass through the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane, so they divide the body into front and back. Frontal (coronal) planes can divide the body at any point, so you need to use a reference.
Transverse (cross-sectional/horizontal) planes: These horizontal planes pass through the body at right angles to the midsagittal and the frontal planes. They divide the body into upper and lower portions, and like the sagittal and frontal planes, you need to have a reference point.
Flexion: This movement is the bending of a part, or decreasing the angle between two parts. You flex your elbow when you bring your forearm up toward your upper arm, and you flex your spine when you bend your body forward.
Extension: The opposite of flex , the straightening of a part, or increasing the angle between 2 parts. You extend your elbow when you move your forearm away
from your arm to straighten your elbow, and you extend your back when you move from being in a flexed position back upright.
REMEMBER Moving the body isn’t always as simple as flexion and extension. Some parts of the body move away and come closer
Abduction: Moving away from the midline. Think of a body in the anatomical position and imagine raising the upper extremities out to the sides — that’s abduction. The fingers and toes are a little different because
the hand and foot have their own midlines, so when you spread your fingers and toes you’re abducting them (moving them away from the middle finger, or the third digit).
Adduction: Moving toward the midline. Bringing the abducted upper extremities back down to the sides of the body is adduction. Drawing your fingers (or toes) close together is also adduction.
Protraction: Moving a body part forward, like jutting your chin or sticking out your tongue.
Retraction: Pulling backward, like retracting your chin back into its normal position.
Circumduction: Moving in a circular motion, like doing arm circles, is circumduction. It involves combining flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction all into one movement.
Supination: This movement is lateral rotation of the forearm so the palm in the previous example faces anteriorly.
Depression: Moving a part inferiorly (closer to the feet), like moving those raised shoulders back down again, is depression.
Inversion: This foot-specific action is moving the foot so the sole (bottom of the foot) faces inward.
Eversion: This term means moving your foot so the sole faces outward.
Dorsiflexion: Elevating the foot, or moving the foot until the toes point upward, is dorsiflexion.
Plantarflexion: This term is a specific kind of depression where you tilt the foot until the toes point down.
Prone position: This is the position in which the back of the body is directed upwards. The body lies in a horizontal plane with face directed downwards.
Supine position: In this position the body is lying down with face pointing upwards. All the remaining positions are similar to anatomical position with the only difference of being in a horizontal plane rather than a vertical plane.
Lateral Recumbent: Patient is laying vertically on their side.
Body Movements: • Flex/ Extend •Abduct/ Adduct •Rotation •Pronation/ supination • Plantar/ Dorsiflexion •Inversion/ Eversion
Created by: alecamila
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