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CH 55

law of conservation of mass physical law stating that matter can change form, but cannot be created or destroyed; in a closed system the mass of the system is constant
primary producer an autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism - they make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that supports all other levels
primary consumer an herbivore or organism that eats plants or other autotrophs
secondary consumer a carnivore that eats herbivores
tertiary consumer a carnivore that eats other carnivores
detritivore/decomposer consumer that derives its energy and nutrients from non-living organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material and the wastes of living organisms
detritus dead organic matter
primary production the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by the autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given time period
Gross Primary Production (GPP) total primary production of an ecosystem
Net Primary Production (NPP) the GPP of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration
Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) GPP of an ecosystem minus the energy used by all autotrophs and heterotrophs for respiration
limiting nutrient an element that must be added for production to increase in a particular area
eutrophication process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorous and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria
secondary production the amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
production efficiency the percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is not used for respiration or eliminated as waste
trophic efficiency the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level
turnover time the time required to replace the standing crop of a population or group of populations calculated as the ratio of standing crop to production
biogeochemical cycles any of the various chemical cycles, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of an ecosytem
bioremediation the use of organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
biological augmentation an approach to restoration ecology that uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem
Created by: Fox Science