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Intro to Criminal Ju


crime an intentional violation of the criminal law or penal code, committed without defense or excuse and penalize by the state.
norm or social more any standard or rule regarding what human beings should or should not think, say, or do under a giving circumstances.
overcriminalization the prohibition by the criminal law of some behaviors that arguably should not be prohibited.
nonenforcement the failure to prohibit some behaviors that arguably should be prohibit.
harm the external consequence required to make an action a crime
legality the requirement that a harm must be legally forbidden for the behavior to be a crime and that the law must be not retroactive.
ex post facto law a law that: declares criminal act that was not illegal when it was committed increases the punishment for a crime after it is committed alters the rules of evidence in a particular case after the crime is committed.
actus reus criminal conduct, specifically intentional or criminal negligent, action or inaction that causes harm.
means rea criminal intent, a guilty state of mind.
negligence the failure to take reasonable precautions to prevent harm
duress force or coercion as an excuse for committing a crime
juvenile deliquency a special category of offense created for young offenders. Between 7 and 18 years old.
insanity mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against a criminal charge
entrapment a legal defense against a criminal responsibility when a person is induced into committing a crime by a law enforcement officer or by his or her agent.
necessity defense a legal defense against criminal responsibility used when a crime has been committed to prevent a more seroius crime
mala in se wrong in themselves. Crimes that are characterize by universality and timelesness
mala prohibita offenses that are illegal because laws define them as such; they lack universality and timelessness
dark figure of crime the number of crimes not officially recorded by the police
crime index an estimate of crimes committed
offenses know to the police a crime index, reported by the FBI' uniform crime report, composed of crimes that are both reported to and recorded by the police
crime rate a measure of the incident of crime expressed as the number of crimes per unit of population or some other base.
uniform crime report UCR a collection of crime statistics and other law enforcement information gathered under a voluntary national program administered by the FBI
eight index crimes the part I offenses in the FBI's uniform crime reports.
8 index crimes 1. murder and non negligent manslaughter 2. forcible rape 3. robbery 4. aggravated assault 5. burglary 6. larceny-theft 7. motor vehicle thefth 8. arson
status offense an act that is illegal for juvenile but wound not be a crime if committed by an adult
crime index offenses cleared the number of offenses for which at least one person has been arrested, charge with the commission of the offense, and turned over to the court for prosecution
national crime victimization surveys NCVS crime statistics base on interviews
self report crime surveys surveys in which subjects are asked whether they have committed crimes
affidavit declaraciĆ³n jurada
Created by: 739375707