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Wiles--Module 6

Wiles Module 6--Organic Chemistry

What are the monomers of proteins? Amino acids
What type of a lipid are liquid at room temperature and made from plants' oils? Unsaturated lipids
What type of lipids comprise the cell membrane? Phospholipids
What polysaccharide makes up the cell walls of plants & we can not digest it? We refer to it as dietary "fiber". Cellulose
What type of data was taken during the nutrient lab since we recorded the colors that the foods turned when combined with the test substances? Qualitative
What four elements always comprise a protein? C, H, O, and N
What enzyme do lactose intolerant people not possess? Lactase
The general ending for a sugar or carbohydrate is _____. -ose
The general ending for an enzyme name is ____. -ase
What nutrient does vitamin D help to absorb? Calcium
What is lipase? An enzyme to break down fats or lipids.
What is an amine group? one nitrogen atom and two hydrogen atoms
What polysaccharide do plants store glucose as? Starch
What are the 2 products formed when hydrogen peroxide is broken down by catalase? Water and oxygen
What means "containing carbon"? Organic
What monosaccharide do plants produce during photosynthesis? Glucose
What word refers to a lipid's inability to dissolve in water? Non-polar or hydrophobic
What are the two classes of vitamins? Fat soluble and water soluble
A ____ is composed many monosaccharides chemically bonded together through a condensation reaction. Polysaccharide
What do enzymes do to the activation energy of a chemical reaction? Reduce or lower it.
What element is missing in all inorganic molecules? Carbon
What type of a lipid waterproofs tissues? Waxes
What is the scientific name for table sugar? Sucrose
An enzyme is generally called a(n) ___ since it speeds up a chemical reaction. Catalyst
What hormone are most anabolic steroids derived from? Testosterone
What nutrient makes up the greatest percentage of our body? Water
What nutrient mainly comprises skin? Protein
What is a deficiency of vitamin C called? Scurvy
What type of a reaction links monomers together into polymers? Condensation or dehydration synthesis reaction.
Where in our body is vitamin D produced? What stimulates this production of vitamin D? In our skin with the presence of sunlight
ATP is a high energy molecule. If 1 phosphate group is released, what is formed? ADP (Adenosine diphosphate)
What monosaccharide is found in oranges? Fructose
What was the substrate in the enzyme lab? Hydrogen peroxide
What is the scientific name for a fat? lipid
How are polymers and monomers related? Monomers bond together to make polymers
What enzyme did we test for in liver? Catalase
What is another name for a condensation reaction? Dehydration synthesis
What solution do you use to test for the presence of glucose? Benedict's solution
What is the formula for sodium hydroxide in the nutrient lab? NaOH
What type of lipid is made of 4 carbon rings and has no fatty acids in it? Steroids
What nutrient can we test for by placing the food on brown paper? Lipids
A carbon atom readily forms what type of bond with other elements? Covalent
How many covalent bonds will carbon form with other elements? 4
What are the two types of nucleic acids in our body? DNA and RNA
What does a triglyceride consist of? 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
Give 3 symptoms of lactose intolerance. Abdominal pains, bloating, gas, stomach cramps
What element is in a protein but NOT in a carbohydrate? Nitrogen
What molecule in the body is made in the pancreas and helps the cells take in glucose? Insulin
Large polymers are called ____. macromolecules
Scientific name for vitamin C is ____ ____. ascorbic acid
What is the general rule of solubility regarding polarity? Likes dissolve likes
What bacteria produces vitamin K for us? Where is it located in the body? E. coli in our colon which is our large intestine
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are called ___ since they have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula. Isomers
What type of a chemical reaction breaks polymers down into monomers? Hydrolysis
What is a protein made up of only 2 amino acids held together by a peptide bond? Dipeptide
What polysaccharide is also known as "animal starch"? Glycogen
What are the simple units or monomers of a nucleic acid? Nucleotide
What nutrient do you test for by using iodine or Lugol's solution? Starch
What is the term for any organism that produce its own food during photosynthesis? Autotroph
The breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase got warm to the touch. Was this endothermic or exothermic? Exothermic
What is a carboxyl group? COOH
Boiling an enzyme will alter its shape and render it inactive. This is known as ____. Denaturing
What type of nutrient is an enzyme? Protein
What type of a lipid is two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule? Phospholipids
What is human body temperature in degrees Celcius? 37 degrees Celsius
Minerals used to repair tissues and help in conducting electrical impulses throughout the body are termed __. electrolytes
In a unsaturated fatty acid in the cis configuration, where are the H atoms in reference to the double bond? On the same side of the the two carbons that have the double bond between them
What is an iodine deficiency called? What gland in the the human body swells? Where is it located? Goiter; thyroid gland at the base of the neck swells
How many amino acids are possible? 20
What dissacharide is found in milk and milk products? Lactose
What type of triglyceride are solid at room temperature and are made from animals? Saturated fats or saturated lipids
What nutrient is our body's first source of energy, thus there is not much stored in our body? Carbohydrates
In a lipid known as a wax, what is the fatty acid monomer linked to? Alcohol
What mineral deficiency does a person with ricketts have? Not enough calcium (maybe due to not enough vitamin D or phosphate)
If a ATP molecule has 2 phosphates remvoed for energy purposes, what is the name of the resulting molecule? AMP (Adenosine monophosphate)
What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a monosaccharide? 1 carbon atom: 2 hydrogen atoms: 1 oxygen atom
What do enzymes do to the activation energy of a chemical reaction? lowers it so that the reaction can proceed more quickly
What is formed by 80 amino acids held together by peptide bonds? polypeptide
What is the name of the model that helps to pictorally explain the fit between an ezyme and its substrate? Lock and key model or induced fit model
Which of the following stores hereditary information? a. ATP b. DNA c. protein d. carbohydrates DNA
Complete this analogy.simple sugars: carbohydrates:: amino acids: proteins
Name two things that could denature an enzyme? Extreme temperature (boiling); extreme pH; type of solvent exposed to
What is the chemical formula for a monosaccharide that has three carbons? 3 atoms of C: 6 atoms of H: 3 atoms of O(P.S. Write as a formula like this except the numbers should be subscripts C3H6O3) Study stack won't print subscripts in the biology section.
How is a single covalent bond drawn in a structural formula? A single line between atoms ________
Name two water soluble vitamins. vitamin C or any vitamin B
Name two fat soluble vitamins. A,D,E, and K
The place on the enzyme where it fits into the substrate is called the ____ ____. active site
What disease is growing in numbers in the American population that involves the body's inability to make or respond to insulin? Diabetes
Name two fruits that can not be used raw in a Jello salad because they have enzymes that will break down the protein in gelatine and thus will never set up? Kiw, pineapple, mango, guava, fig, and papaya
What is biochemistry defined as? The study of the chemicals needed to maintain life
An unsaturated fatty acid that has hydrogen atoms on opposite sides of the double bond is referred to as _____ trans unsaturated fatty acid
What are the monomers of DNA and RNA? Nucleotide (made of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base)
What is a hydroxyl functional group? -OH
What functional group is a C atom double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to a hydroxyl? carboxyl
What disaccharide is known as table sugar? sucrose
Enzymes are specific. What does this mean? Each enzyme can only fit with one type of substrate and catalyze only one reaction. For instance, lipase can only break down fats. Lipase can not break down proteins or carbohydrates.
What word describes an enzyme which has been inactivated by extreme temperature or pH? denatured
What metric prefix means one million Mega-
How many different amino acids exist? 20
What type of a bond hold amino acids together in a protein? peptide bond
What is formed by linking two monosaccharides together in a condensation reaction? disaccharide
What type of a lipid generally prevent water loss in a desert plant? wax
A catalyst in the human body is known as a(n) ______. enzyme
Based on what you have learned in this module, what type of molecule do you think protease would break down? Protein
Is water organic or inorganic? inorganic
True or false? Enzymes are reusable. True
What would an inhibitor due to an enzyme's activity? Reduce or completely block enzyme activity
What are the monomers of lipids? fatty acids
Lipids with only single covalent bonds in the hydrocarbon chain are referred to as _______. saturated fats
Created by: lburris
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