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Biology I Chapter 1

Question / DefinitionAnswer / Term
set of interacting components considered to be a distinct entity for the purpose of studying or understanding system
what do all systems have some type of some type of input (what goes into a system) and output (what comes out of a system)
what is the input and output of a cell phone input-radio system output-vibrations that we detect as sound
systems can range in what size and complexity
what do all systems have feedback
information from one step of a cycle that acts to change the behavior of a previous step feedback
a property that a system has but its parts do not have emergent properties
what is an example of an emergent property cells and tissues
what are the characteristics of living things -cells -homeostasis -energy -reproduce -grow -respond to stimuli -contain genetic material -evolve
what do systems need organization
all of the air that envelops Earth atmosphere
solid features of Earth's surface geosphere
what is an example of the geosphere mountains and continents
area of Earth where life exists biosphere
all of the Earth's water hydrosphere
what is an example of the hydrosphere liquid water, ice, and water vapor
from smallest to largest what are the levels of organization within the biosphere organism->population->community->ecosystem->biome->biosphere
what sections of the biosphere contain living things organism,population, and community
what sections of the biosphere contain living and non-living things ecosystem, biome, and biosphere
what are the parts of an organism organisms->organ systems->organs->tissues->cells (smallest living unit)
maintain internal temperature homeostatsis
sexual-new living organism from genetic info from 2 "parents" asexual-inherit genetic info from 1 "parent" reproduction
important for survival ex: light, sound, temperature respond to stimuli
change over time to adapt to environment "survival of the fittest" evolve
DNA makes who you are contain genetic material
cells within the organism take in nutrients and get bigger grow
get energy from sunlight autotroph
get energy from other living things hetertroph
2 or more organs that work together to perform body functions organ system
why do organ systems interact with each other to maintain stable internal condition (homeostasis)
what is an example of 2 organ systems working together muscular interacts with circulatory to help pump blood and deliver oxygen ad nutrients to cells
groups of tissues that carry out a specialized function organs
group of similar cells that work together to perform specialized functions tissue
what are the 4 main types of tissue nervous, muscle, connective, epitheial
what type of tissue receives and transmits signals nervous
what type of tissue contracts to allow movement and support muscle
what type of tissue supports and binds other tissues together connective
what type of tissue is a protective lining epitheial
most basic unit of life, goes through division to make new cells(mitosis) cells
what is cell specialization also called cell differentiation
what is an example of specialized cells brain cells (neurons)-> sends electrical and chemical sounds
what are the 3 types of neurons sensory, interneurons, motor
what type of neuron detects stimuli and sends signals sensory
what type of neuron sends information from sensory to motor neurons interneurons
what type of neuron acts on info by contracting muscle motor
what is the cell theory 1) all living things are made up of one or more cells 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function 3) all cells come from other cells
what do all cells contain small structures called organelles
what are the 2 major types of cells prokaryotic and eukaryotic
what are characteristics of prokaryotic cells ~appeared earlier in history ~small and simple ~unicellular ~cell membrane ~ribosomes ~no nucleus ~no organelles ~DNA floats freely ~example is bacteria
what are characteristics of eukaryotic cells ~appeared later in history ~large and complex ~mostly multicellular ~cell membrane ~ribosomes ~has nucleus ~has membrane bound organelles ~DNA is trapped in nucleus ~examples are plants, animals-humans, and fungi
function-boundary description- bouncer, found in all cells cell membrane
function-boundary description- plants only, gives extra structure cell wall
function- nucleus description- surrounds nucleus, has pores that allows material in and out nuclear membrane
function- nucleus description- makes ribosomes nucleolus
function- nucleus description- strand of DNA chromatin
function- nucleus description- condensed chromatin chromosome
function- protein synthesis description- makes proteins ribosomes
function-filler description- thick fluid throughout cells cytoplasm
function-storage description- stores material, water, food, and enzymes vacuole
function-energy description-takes chemical energy from food and turns it into useful energy mitochondria
function- energy description- plants only, for photosynthesis, captures sun's energy chloroplasts
function-movement description-hair like structure cilia
function-movement description- whip like structure flagellum
regulation and maintenance of the internal environment within the narrow ranges that are necessary to support life homeostasis
what is an example of homeostasis body temperature
what is the first step in keeping homeostasis maintained stimulus causes and imbalance
anything from the internal or external environment that causes an imbalance stimulus
what is the second step in keeping homeostasis maintained stimuli are detected by receptors
what is the third step in keeping homeostasis maintained receptor sends info to control center->control center compares info to set values
what is the fourth step in keeping homeostasis maintained control center responds
what is the fifth step in keeping homeostasis maintained response of control center restores balance by returning internal conditions to set points
what does homeostasis depend on communication between receptors, control centers and effectors
hormones are a type of communication
chemicals secreted in bloodstream hormones
what is an example of a hormone adrenaline-causes blood vessels to allow oxygen to muscles
return condition to normal set points negative feedback loop
what type of feedback loop are most functions negative
make adjustments in the same direction as the stimulus positive feedback loop
what is an example of a short term disruption of homeostasis cold-virus enters body and multiplies before immune system can destroy it->symptoms- runny nose and sore throat
cause more damage and can lead to other diseases long term disruption of homeostasis
how do plants maintain homeostasis balance of gas, sun, water, and minerals
what gases are exchanged through plants and where at on the plants CO2 and O2; through stomata
small holes on bottom of leaf stomata
applies the concepts of engineering to living things bioengineering
what is an example of bioengineering cochlear implants send signals to the brain for people with damaged inner ears
how are technology and society related -constantly building off each other -greatly influence each other
what is an example of how technology and society are related emergency medical treatment and technology ~Ambulances in the 1950s just delivered patients ~Societal expectations led to vehicles with room for medical treatment
method used to develop or improve technology engineering design process
what are the 2 types of variables in an experiment independent and dependent
what factor is adjusted in experiment independent
what factor responds to the other dependent
Consider the following question: how will amount of light affect plant growth? what is the independent variable amount of light
Consider the following question: how will amount of light affect plant growth? what is the dependent variable height of plant
Consider the following question: how will amount of light affect plant growth? what is the control natural light
Created by: dancer2024
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