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Drug Therapy

Drug Therapy: disorder of the digestive tract

Drug classificationuse and action
Antacids: magnesium hydroxide aluminum hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium bicarbonate used to reduce pain of peptic ulcers by neutralizing acid in the stomach, decreasing irritation of the stomach lining, and inhibiting production of pepsin.
H2 Receptor Blockers: cimetidine (Tagamet) ranitidine (Zantac) famotidine (Pepcid) nizatidine (Azid) used to reduce secretion of gastric acid and promote healing of ulcers
proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec) esomeprazole (Nexium) lansoprazole (Prevacid) pantoprazole (Protonix) rabeprazole (Aciphex) used to inhibit gastric acid secretion in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, GERD, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Mucosal Barriers: sucralfate (Carafate) used to permit healing of an ulcer by interacting with acid to form a protective gel that coats the ulcer surface
synthetic prostaglandins misoprostol (Cytotec) used to decrease gastric acid and protect the gastric mucosa. often used to prevent gastric ulcers caused by NSAIDs
anticholinergic agents: atropine, pirenzepine (Gastrozepin) used to block action of acetycholine, decreases salivary and gastric secretions, reduces pain by reducing smooth muscle tone in GI tract
laxatives and stimulants Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) tables and suppositories senna (Senokot) cascara Sagrada castor oil used to facilitate bowel elimination. Stimulates the GI tract by irritating the mucosa. Tends to produce diarrhea-like stools. Castor oil is too harsh for routine use
bulk-forming laxatives: psyllium (Metamucil) methylcellulose (Citrucel) used to retain water in the stool to increase bulk and fluid, which stimulates peristalsis with the passage of the formed, soft stool.
saline (Osmotic) laxatives magnesium citrate & magnesium hydroxide (MOM) sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda) polyethylene glycol (MiraLAX) used to draw water into bowel to distend and stimulate evacuation. it is intended for short-term use only.
lubricants: mineral oil used to lubricate feces for easier passage
Fecal wetting agents: docusate calcium (Surfak) docusate sodium (Colace) used to soften fecal mass. because it may take up to 3 days before effects are evident, these agents are used primarily for prevention of constipation
Other agent: lactulose (Cephulac) used to increase fecal water content to stimulate evacuation. promotes passage of ammonia through the rectum. used in hepatic encephalopathy. available for oral or rectal administration
polyethylene glycol-electrolyte sodium (GoLYTELY, HalfLytely, MoviPrep) glycerin suppository or enema GoLYTELY, HalfLytely and MoviPrep are used to cleanse the bowel before diagnostic procedures. HalfLytely and MoviPrep include other drugs that stimulate the bowel and require less fluid volume than GoLYTELY
Antidiarrheal Agents (Opiates) morphine, diphenoxylate HCI (Lomotil) loperamide HCI (Imodium) used to decrease intestinal motility so that the liquid portion of feces is reabsorbed
Antidiarrheal Agents (adsorbents) kaolin aluminum hydroxide used to bind the substances that may cause diarrhea
Antidiarrheal Agents Lactobacillus products used to replace normal bacterial flora of the bowel
Antiemetics 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists ondansetron (Zofran) granisetron (Kytril) palonosetron (Aloxi) used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Aloxi has a very long half-life (40 hours), so a single dose usually controls initial and delayed chemotherapy side efects
Antiemetics substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor blocker aprepitant (Emend)
Created by: arogers74