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GI Tract Illnesses

QuestionAnswer
what is absorption transfer of nutrients from the intestine into the blood
what is peristalsis movement of food substances along the intestinal tract by wavelike motions of involuntary muscles
what is metabolism sum of all the many physical and chemical processes concerned with the disposition of nutrients absorbed into the bloodstream
what is anabolism metabolic activities involving the synthesis of substances needed to build, maintain and repair body tissues
what is catabolism the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules so that energy is available
Diagnostic test: Upper GI (UGI) is completed how x-ray with fluoroscopy to locate obstruction, ulceration or growth in esophagus, stomach and duodenum
Diagnostic test: Barium Enema (BE) is completed how x-ray exam of colon using fluoroscopy
Diagnostic test: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is completed how visualized esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a lighted tube to detect tumor, ulceration or obstruction
Diagnostic test: sigmoidoscopy aka proctoscopy is an exam of the lining of the rectum and sigmoid colon to detect polyps, tumor, or ulceration
Diagnostic test: colonoscopy is a direct visualization of the lining of the colon with a flexible endoscope
Diagnostic test: fecal analysis (stool sample) is an analysis for presence of mucus, elevated fat content, blood, bacteria or parasites (O&P = ova and parasites)
Anorexia Nervosa is a disorder in which the patient is preoccupied with eating, but had a morbid fear of becoming fat. Also uses excessive exercise to remain thin, can lead to starvation
Obesity is when a patients weight is 20% above the ideal weight
Stomatitis is inflammation of the oral mucosa; caused by poorly fitted dentures, excessive tobacco or alcohol, poor hygiene, inadequate nutrition, pathogens, radiation and drug therapy
Vincent's infection is (thresh mouth) bacterial infection that causes bleeding ulcers, metallic taste in mouth, foul breath, and increase salivation
aphthous stomatitis (canker sore) is a viral infection characterized by ulcers of the lips and mouth that recur at intevals
candida albicans is yeast-like fungus causing the oral condition thrush or candidiasis, bluish white lesions on the mucosa membranes of the mouth; steroid and antibiotic use increase risk
Dental caries is a destructive process of tooth decay beginning with the presence of plaque
Peridontal disease begins with gingivitis and progresses to involve the other supporting structures of the teeth, it results from poor oral hygiene, poor general health, anemia, and vitamin deficiencies
Types of oral cancer squamous cell carcinoma - lips, buccal mucosa, gums, floor of mouth, tonsils and tongue. basal cell carcinoma - lips. leukoplakia - precancerous, hard white patches in the mouth.
Oral Cancer post-op nursing inventions consult PCP for specific oral care orders, take tympanic or rectal temp, oral rinse 1/2 strength H202 and saline, monitor respirations pain and I&O, devise system for communication.
Hiatal hernia is A condition in which the upper part of the stomach bulges through an opening in the diaphragm.
predisposing factors of hiatal hernia obesity, pregnancy, gender, age, long-term bedrest (60+ in age, women more than men)
how to diagnose a hiatal hernia barium swallow, esophagoscopy, esophageal manometry and CT scan
Hiatal hernia nursing care HOB elevated, upright during and after meals, encourage weight loss, avoid GI stimulants (alcohol, caffeine, nicotine) avoid valsulva maneuver, prevent reflux
Gastritis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the mucus membrane lining of the stomach
Gastritis is caused by H. pylori, excessive alcohol intake, ingestion of contaminated food, medications (ASA, NSAIDs, steroids) stress
Acute treatment of Gastritis is NPO, meds to decrease peristalsis, relative nausea, decease acidity and analgesics
chronic treatment of gastritis is diet control, pain control and oral antacids
peptic ulcer is an ulceration with loss of tissue in the upper GI tract, includes both duodenal and gastric ulcers
how does a peptic ulcer develop when mucosa cannot protect itself from corrosive substances, i.e. gastric acid, pepsinogen alcohol, bile, irritating foods
common causes of a peptic ulcer include: helicobacter pylori (H.hylori), caffeine, smoking, stress, spicy foods, & medications
how are peptic ulcers diagnosed: barium swallow, gastroscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy
peptic ulcer complications: hemorrhage; perforation; obstruction
treatment of peptic ulcer antacids; antisecretory - suppress acid secretion; protectant; antibiotics; Cytotec - prevention, maintains mucosal layer; Reglan-speeds movement of food from stomach which decreases the amount of acid released into the stomach
signs and symptoms of perforation sudden and severe pain in upper abdomen with possible radiation to shoulders. abdomen rigid, board-like and tender
signs and symptoms of obstruction abdominal distention, pain, projectile vomiting
post-op care for peptic ulcer maintain NGT position pain mange. abdominal assess,
what is voldyne a popular incentive spirometer
Site of opening on the skin Stoma
Surgically created opening and the kidney to drain urine Nephrostomy
Surgically created opening in to the urinary bladder Vesicostomy or cystostomy
Artificial opening into a body cavity Ostomy
Opening in the ureter; one or both ureters are brought out through opening in the abdonen or flank Ureterostomy
Where are the 2 main long term complications of colostomies Prolapse & stenosis
Hiatal hernis is thought to be caused by weakness in the? Lower esophageal sphincter
Procedure used to detect the presence of air, fluid, or mass in tissues Percussion
The protrusion of the lower esophagus and stomach upward through the diaphragm into the chest Hiatal hernia
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Created by: arogers74