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evol psy 307Ch12p380

evol psy 307Ch12p380-82

facial dominance is indicated by prominent chin, heavy brow ridges, muscular face
West Point Cadets with dominant looking faces reached higher ranks
high school male facial dominance, physical attractiveness and pubertal development correlated with total number of sexual partners
testosterone treatments increased status of low ranking cows and roosters
higher testosterone levels correlate with various risk-taking behaviors
mismatch hypothesis placing high testosterone individuals in low-status or low testosterone individuals in high-status positions creates stress and impairs cognitive performance
changes in status (winning) results in changes in testosterone levels
testosterone may help winners by preparing them for further challenges or a high status role
male waste to hip ratio (WHR) appears to be dependent on testosterone levels
higher WHR males have higher testosterone and are generally healthier, rated themselves as more assertive and were judged more leader-like and dominant
testosterone level was (especially with low cortisol levels) positively correlated with dominance, but not prestige
women with high testosterone levels were judged as having lower status and tended to overestimate their own status
Prozac works by increasing serotonin in the brain
male vervet monkeys with high social rank had almost twice as much serotonin in their blood as did low-ranking members
changes in monkey rank correlated to changes in serotonin in their blood
higher ranking fraternity members had 25% more serotonin than ordinary members
serotonin also mediates status hierarchy position
correlates of dominance athleticism, intelligence, physical attractiveness, humorousness and good grooming
sociometer theory (Mark Leary) self-esteem is a gauge (or sociometer) of interpersonal relationships (other people's evaluations)
variation in self-esteem signals an change in the degree to which one is socaily included and accepted by others
In EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptedness) failure to be accepted by others would have resulted in isolation and premature death if one were forced to live without group protection
higher perceived inclusion by others was linked with high self-esteem
self-esteem tracks prestige, status and reputation
self-esteem evolutionary functions to maintain and increase actual status and reputation motivation (improve relations and increase frequency of actions to raise respect when respect wanes)
self-esteem guides decisions about avoiding injury, banishment and death whom to challenge and whom to submit to
self-esteem may have been valuable in tracking one's desirability in the mating market
women exposed to physically attractive male photos evaluated themselves as less desirable regardless of their SDO
men exposed to high dominant male photos rated themselves as low in mating desirability
men exposed to physically attractive male photos rated themselves as no differently in mating desirability
the link between mate value and self-esteem seems to apply to men, not to women
acceptance or rejection by potential mates influences self-esteem which in turn influences the quality of mate to which one aspires
some truthfulness in self-presentations of one's status and esteem is often assumed unless labeled arrogant, conceited, haughty, vain, affected, pretentious inflated or presumptuous
females are more likely to use appeasement and courtship gestures (smiling(46%), parading, showing neck, touching face, stroking hair) to negotiate with men
deceiving down involves avoiding wrath and keeping group membership by an actual reduction of self-confidence to facilitate acting in a submissive, subordinate manner
tall poppy one whose distinction, rank or wealth attracts envious notice or hostility
schadenfreude /ˈSHädənˌfroidə/ experiencing pleasure in another's misfortune
tall poppy syndrome the fact that people do not like and often criticize other people who are successful
people take pleasure in the fall of a tall poppy when tall poppy high status salient, status not perceived as deserved, envy common if participants if domain important to participant Japanese and low self-esteem participants reported more delight
schadenfreude may serve to motivate promoting tall poppy misfortunes
motivational states linked to submissive behavior fear of harm to self and fear of harm to another person (guilt-based submission)
submissive strategies hiding, escaping, remaining passive, signaling defeat, eliciting other's help, signaling agreeable and cooperative proclivities
Created by: james22222222