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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure Review

What is Matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass
What is an Atom? Smallest stable unit of matter
What is a Proton? Positively Charged Atom
What is a Neutron? Neutral atom
What is an Electron? Negatively Charged Atom Determine the chemical behavior of an atom
What is an Isotope? Atoms of same element whose Nucleus contains the same number of Protons, but diff. number of Neutrons Ex: Carbon 12 6-P 6-N
What is a Radioisotope? Unstable Isotopes that emit radiation
What is a Covalent Bond? Can be Polar and Non-Polar STRONG BOND/ involving shared pairs of Electrons between atoms 1 Electron is donated by each atom to make a pair of Electrons
What is an Ionic Bond? Weaker than Covalent Atom ( Electron Donor) loses 1 or more Electons and becomes a CATION- Pos. Charge Another atom( Electron Acceptor) gains those same Electrons and becomes an ANION- Neg Charge Attraction between the Oposite charges draws the two ions together.
What is a Hydrogen Bond? Weaker than Ionic Bonds between adjacent molecules/ not atoms Slighly Pos. and Neg. portions of the Polar Molecules( Attracted to one another) Many stabilize large 3D Molecules- DNA Strands to form double helix Tertiary and Quaternary Struct. of Proteins
What is Anabolism? A synthesis Rxn that is large and requires energy in an organism.
What is Catabolism? Decomposition Rxn break bonds within larger compounds to form smaller atoms, ions, and molecules. Release Energy
What is Metabolism? Exchange Rxn multi step rxn that involve both breaking and forming Covalent Bonds Balance of Acids and Bases
Special characteristics of Water ? Most Abundant Compoud Cohesiveness( Surface Tension)/ Excellent Solvent( Dissolves Salt and other charged molecules)/ Liquid across wide range of temp/ High Heat Capacity/ Chemical Reactivity ( Reactant in Hydrolysis / prod of dehydration synth.)
Atomic Structure Nucleus= Protons+ Neutrons
Atomic Number Number of Protons
Electron Cloud Contain Electron
What is an Element Single type of Atom Determined the atomic number of an atom (Dalton)
Mass number Atomic Mass
Electron Cloud Contains Shells or Energy Levels
Valence Shell Outermost shell determine bonding
What is a Chemical Bond: involves sharing, gaining, losing of electrons in the Valence Shell
3 types of Chemical Bond Covalent Bond( Nonpolar- Polar) Ionic Hydrogen
3 types of Covalent Bonds Single Covalent Bond Double Covalent Bond Triple " "
Non Polar Covalent Bonds DON'T LIKE WATER EQUAL sharing of Electrons Equal attraction for electrons
Polar Covalent Bonds INTERACT WITH WATER POLAR Molecules UNEQUAL sharing of electrons/ 1 of atoms involved in bond has a stronger attractions for the electrons CAN FORM HYDROGEN BONDS
Salts ELECTROLYTES Dissolve in water
Chemical Reactions Making or breaking chemical bonds
Synthesis Reaction Large /Complex Compounds Require Energy
Decomposition Reaction Break Bonds within larger compounds to form smaller atoms, ions, or molecules Release Energy
Exchange Reaction Multi- step rxn that involve both breaking and forming covalent bonds
Acid/Bases Dissociated by water into CATIONS, ANIONS
Acid ANIONS Dissociates into H+ 1 or more
Bases CATIONS Binds with H+ when dissolved into water Some dissociate into Cations+and OH-
PH Microorganisms grow best at 6.5-8.5 Scale of concentration of H+ in a solution
What prevents drastic changes in PH Buffers EX: Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Weak acid/ base depending on environment.
Salts can help with PH by: Buffers
Organic Compounds Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
What are 4 types of Macromolecules Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins(Amino Acids) Nucleic Acids
Lipids Non Polar except Carboxyl Group Hydrophobic Molecule Made by Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms with a carboxyl group
Cell membrane of Lipids Fatty Acids Phopholipids Waxes: Mycolic Acid/ covalently bonded to an alcohol by ester bond/ insoluble in water Steroids: 4 rings of Carbon and Hydrogen with an assortment of functional groups.
Two types of fatty acids Saturated : 1 single covalent bond between Carbon bond Unsaturated:1 double covalent bond
Composition of Animal Cell Membranes Sterol: in cells of FUNGI, PLANTS, MYCOPLASMAS AND CHOLESTEROL
Carbohydrates Organic Molecule of CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN RATIO 1:2:1
CARBS Funct: Energy Part of backbone of Nucleic Acids, DNA/RNA Converted to Amino Acids Form Part of Cell wall in certain bacteria Involved in Intercellular interaction between animal cells
Types of Carbs Monosaccharides: Simple Sugar/ Guclose/ Fructose/ Galactose Disaccharides: Sugars covalently bonded together/ Sucrose/ Lactose Polysaccharides: Many Monosaccharides covalently bonded Glycogen/Starch/Cellulose
What is the most important and abundant organic molecule Proteins
Proteins long chains of amino acids 21 diff
4 Basic Elements of Proteins Carbon C Hydrogen H Oxygen O Nitrogen N
Protein Funct: Support Movement Transport Buffering Metabolic RegulationI( Enzymes) Coordination and Control Defense and Offense
Protein Shape: Lose their funct shape when acidity changes Primary Structure: Seq. of AMINO ACIDS Secondary Structure: Hydrogen bonds from SPIRAL OR PLEATS Tertiary: Secondary structure folds into unique shape Quaternary Structure: Final Protein in shape/ several tertiary structures together.
Nucleic Acids Genetic Material of organisms
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Determine physical characteristics of an organism Direct Protein Synthesis Controls Metabolism
RNA Ribonucleic Acid Help from Proteins Genetic Material of some Viruses
Nucleotides Phosphate Pentose ( 5 Carbon Sugar Deoxyribose, Ribose) Monomers that make up nucleic acids Nitrogenous Base
Nucleosides Lack Phosphate
Nucleic Acid Structure DNA- is a double stranded in most cells and viruses Strands- Complimentary and antiparalles
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Nucleic Acid that is used for energy Phosphate- Phosphate Bonds ( Higher Energy) provide energy Break Bond/Release Energy
Created by: aphastings