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evol psy 307Ch12p374

evol psy 307Ch12p374-77

angered or frustrated people reduce their blood pressure only when they aggress against a person of lower status
more people (65 vs 20%) looked for rule violations when they were checked out people of lower status
deontic reasoning strategies appear early in life
people are more sensitive to social information about what is permitted, obligatory or forbidden
cognition appears to have evolved to solve problems of dominance (Denise Cummins)
resource-holding potential (RHP) (Paul Gilbert) an evaluation that animals make about themselves relative to others regarding their relative strengths and weaknesses
winners or those who think they are likely to win contests are superior in RHP
after evaluations of RHO an animal may attack, flee or submint
dominance is a description of the relationship between two or more individuals
social attention-holding potential (SAHP) quality and quantity of attention others pay to a particular person
when group members confer a lot of high-quality and quantity of attention on an individual he or she rises in status
differences in rank stem form differences in attention conferred by others
humans bestow attention on those who perform a function that is valued by the bestowers
those who fail to bestow benefits are shunned and cut off from attention and resources
going up in rank produces two hypothesized consequences elation and an increase in helping
some people avoid seeking help from others because they believe that it would reduce their perceived status
falling status causes social anxiety, shame, rage, envy and depression
social anxiety functions to motivate efforts to avoid status loss
shame motivates someone to avoid being an object of scorn
rage may function to motivate an individual to seek revenge on the person who caused the status loss
envy is linked with rank in that people experience it when someone else has resources or prestige that they want but fail to possess
envy may prompt actions designed to tear down those who have more than we do
depression prompts submissive behavior designed to appease and prevent continued aggression
verbal indicators of dominance speak in a loud and low-pitched voice
nonverbal indicators of dominance stand at full height, face group, hands on hips, expanded chest, smile little, touch and point at others, walk faster
men lower voice when addressing another man who is lower than they are in dominance
people show selective attention to socially dominant men but not to socially dominant women
low ranking or submissive individuals are bent over, smile a lot, speak softly, listen while others speak, give differential nods, speak less, don't interrupt, address high status members rather than whole group
walking speed is a sex-linked display by men, but not women
adolescent men and women tend to use bi-strategic contolers prosocial and coercive strategies
human rank or social stature tends to correlate with physical stature
tall men believe themselves to be more qualified to be leaders and seek leadership positions
tallness is increased when the person has high social status
testosterone is an androgen produced in the adrenal cortex and ovaries of women,
male testosterone in blood averages 7 times that of women
men produce testosterone in Leydig cells of the testes at puberty, causing a ten fold increase in testosterone levels
Created by: james22222222
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