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NCLEX RN

Signs and Symptoms of Diseases

QuestionAnswer
Acute Resp Distress Syndrome Assessment: hypoxia, sternal and costal retractions, presence of rales or rhonchi, diminished breath sounds, refractory hypxemia
Pulmonary embolus chest pain, dyspnea, syncope, hemptysis, tachycardia, hypotension, apprehension, petechiae on chest and axsilla, distened neck veins
Pneumonia hypoxia, tachypnea, tachycardia, CP, malaise, fever, confusion
pleurisy sharp pain on inspiration, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea
Acute glomerulonephritis Dark, smoke colored urine, hypotension, headache, n/v, oliguria
Chronic glomerulonephritis Proteinuria, pedal edema, weight loss, nocturia, GI complaints, anemia, peripheral neuropathy, gout, hypertension, increased creatinine, increased BUN, normal or below normal urine specific gravity
Peritonitis Fever, abd discomfort, return of cloudy dialysate
Nephritic Syndrome Marked proteinuria, generalized edema, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia
Urinary Calculi Flank pain, fever, n/v, urinary output changes
UTI Pain/burning on urination, urinary frequency and urgency, flank pain, fever, n/v
Benign Prostate Hyperplasia ↑ freq of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy in starting, ↓ volume and force of urinary system, bladder fullness, recurrent UTIs
Anemia ↑ RBC destruction, blood loss, poor dietary iron intake, poor absorption, parasites
Pernicious Anemia Pallor, jaundice, smooth, beefy red tongue, fatigue, weight loss, Paresthesia, ↓vibratory and position senses, ataxia
Aplastic Anemia ↓ Erythrocytes, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Sickle Cell Anemia Tx HHOP
Iron Deficiency Anemia s/s are same as general anemia however if severe s/s also includes: brittle nails, corner of mouth ulcers, sore tongue
Hemophilia Bleed and bruise easily, hemorrhaging from minor cuts, joint hemorrhages, post-op hemorrhaging, internal bleeding, intracranial bleeding hemarthrosis
Polycythemia Vera Enlarged spleen, dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, Paresthesia, dyspnea, pruritis, burning sensation in fingers and toes
Duodenal Ulcer epigastric pain 2-3 hours after meals, pain that is relieved by food intake, melena
Gastric Ulcer midepigastric pain occurring from ½ to 1 hour after meals, discomfort that is increased by food consumption, vomiting (common to relieve some pain)
Dumping Syndrome dizziness, pallor, n/v, palpations
Cataracts blurred, hazy vision, glare from bright lights, yellow, white, or gray discoloration of the pupil, gradual loss of vision
Glaucoma tired eyes, diminished peripheral vision, seeing halos around lights, hardening of the eyeball, IIP
Crohn’s Disease abd pain, diarrhea, cramping weight loss, anemia, ulcer formation
Diverticulitis bowel irregularity, intervals of diarrhea, cramping pain in the left lower quad of and, low
Hepatitis A Malaise, fever, jaundice, n/v
Hepatitis B malaise, fever, rash, jaundice, arthritis, abd pain, nausea
Hepatitis C lacks symptoms and vagueness but also fever, rash, jaundice, arthritis, abd pain, nausea, malaise
Prodromal Stage Fatigue, malaise, anorexia, n/v, fever, dark urine, clay
Icteric state jaundice, pruritis, tenderness in the RUQ, hepatomegaly, elevated liver enzymes
Cirrhosis jaundice, spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly, chronic indigestion, constipation or diarrhea, weight loss, ascites, edema, Vit A, D, E, K deficiencies, changes in behavior, cognition, and speech, elevations in lever enzymes, BUN, and ammonia levels
Pancreatitis epigastic pain radiating to back, n/v, abd distention, elevated blood and urine glucose levels, elevated serum lipase and amylase levels, decreased serum calcium levels, elevated WBCs, steatorrheaCholecystitis
Compartment Syndrome cyanosis, numbness, pain unrelieved by meds, pallor, paresis/paralysis, swelling, tingling
Osteomyelitis fever, malaise, swelling, tenderness, purulent drainage, and pain in infected area
Osteoporosis back pain, constipation, decrease in height, dowager’s hump, fractures
Gout painful joints and tophi (urate crystal growths)
Rheumatoid Arthritis subcutaneous nodules on ulnar surface of arm, warmth, tenderness, and swelling in affected joints
Pituitary Gland Tumor diminished vision due to pressure on the optic chiasm, headache and feeling of fullness in the head, amenorrhea, sterility, increased growth plates, skeletal thickness, hypertrophy of the skin, enlargement of visceral organs like the heart and liver
Hypothyroidism fatigue, lethargy, ↓ body temp, ↓ pulse rate, ↓ BP, weight gain, edema of hands and feet, hair loss, thickening of skin
Hyperthyroidism ↑ HR, ↑ BP, tremors, nervousness, moist skin and sweating, ↑ activity, insomnia, atrial fib, ↑ appetite and weight loss, exopthalmos
Hypoparathyroidism ↓ calcium, ↑ phosphorus, neuro hyperexcitability, carpopedal spasms, urinary freq, mood changes (depression), dry, scaly skin, and think hair, cataracts, changes in teeth (cavities), seizures, changes in EKG (prolonged QT intervals and inverted T waves)
Hyperparathyroidism ↓ blood phosphorus, ↑ blood calcium, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, bone pain and pathological fractures, ↑ urinary output and calcium renal calculi, n/v, changes in EKG (shortened QT interval and signs of heart block)
Addison’s Disease weakness, bronze-like pigmentation of skin, ↓ glucose levels, ↓ blood pressure, anorexia, sparse axillary hair, urinary freq, depression, addisonian crisis
Cushing’s Syndrome Pendulous abd, buffalo hump, moor facies, hirsutism (facial hair), ruddy complexion, ↑ BP, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, ↓ serum potassium and chloride, ↑ 17
Diabetes Mellitus weight loss, ketonuria, polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, delayed wound healing, and ↑ blood glucose
Hyperglycemia headache, n/v, coma, flushed, dry skin, glucose and acetone in urine
Hypoglycemia headache, irritability, disorientation, n/v, diaphoresis, pallor, weakness, convulsions, coma, death
V-Tach
Hypertension 140/90 and over, early morning headache, fatigue
Digoxin Toxicity n/v, seeing halos around lights
Myocardial Infarction substernal pain or pain for greater than 15 mins, pain described as heavy, vise-like, radiating down left arm to jaw and neck; begins spontaneously &not relieved by nitroglycerin; SOB, pallor, diaphoresis, dizziness, n/v, ↑ HR, ↓ BP, ↑ temp, ↑ R
Aneurysm
CHF
V-Fib faint, loses consciousness, pulseless, hypotensive or lack of BP
Pulmonary Edema frothy, pink- tinged sputum, SOB, orthopnea, distended jugular veins
Causes of seizures: abrupt withdrawal of barbiturates, brain tumors, CNS infections, head injuries, high fevers, HTN, hypoglycemia
Epidural hematoma lucid to consciousness followed by being critical and then comatose
IICP blurred vision, changes in cognition, changes in LOC, cheyne stokes resps, coma, DECEREBRATE posture, ↓motor responsiveness, Diplopia, doll’s eye, headache, n/v, pupil changes, personality and behavior changes, seizures, widen pulse pressure, ↓HR, R
IICP in an Infant bulging fontanels, high pitched crying, irritability, restlessness
Spinal cord injuries acute resp failure, compromised resp function, loss of bowel and bladder tone, loss of sweating and vasomotor tone, marked reduction of BP due to loss of peripheral vascular resistance, sensory and motor paralysis
Created by: KStratman