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2009-10 AP Govt

Block grants broad program grants given more or less automatically to states and communities, which exercise discretion in how the money is spent.
Categorical Grants Grants that can be used for a spedic purpose or categories of state and local spending.
Cooperative or Marble Cake Federalism where state and the national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake; powers and policies are shared.
Declaration of Independence the document used by the signers to announce and justify the Revolutionary War and which was specifically designed to enlist the aid of foreign nations in the revolt.
Dual or Layer Cake Federalism where states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake.
Elastic clause the statement in the Constitution which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties.
Enumerated powers powers of Congress found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Enumerated, Delegated, Implied and Concurrent Powers
Extradition the Constitution requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
Federalism a system of shared power between two or more levels of government.
Fiscal federalism the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Formula grants a type of categorical grant where states and local governments do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula.
Full faith and credit Article IV of the Constitution requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states’ public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings.
Gibbons v. Ogden the 1824 Supreme Court case which further expanded Congress’ power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity.
Implied powers powers beyond Congress’ enumerated powers which ensure that it can carry out its duties.
Intergovernmental relations the term used to describe the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments
McCulloch v. Maryland the 1819 Supreme Court case, which established the supremacy of the national government over the states, included implied powers of Congress.
Privileges and immunities the Constitution prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
Project grant categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
Supremecy Clause reference to 10th Amendment national v. state supremecy
Tenth Amendment specifies that powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the state government or the people.
Unitary government a system where all power resides in the central government.
Created by: ekorzep