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Patient with Cancer

Chapter 25 Medical Surgical

QuestionAnswer
What are the most common sites for cancer in men? prostate 27% Lung and bronchus 14% colon and rectum 8%
What are the most common sites for cancer in women? breast 29% Lung and bronchus 13% colon and rectum 8%
What is a benign tumor mass of cells relatively harmless, do not spread to other parts of the body only become a problem when they apply pressure or obstruct body organs, surgical removal is often recommended
What is a malignant tumor mass of cells that are abnormal in appearance; unable to perform function of origin; not recognized by other cells; may have tumor markers; inadequate space and nutrients, can migrate from one tissue to or organ to another
What is regional invasion movement of cancer cells into adjoining tissue
Define metastasis process by which cancer spreads
define metastatic growths tumors found away from original site of malignant cells: most common sites are liver, brain, bone and lungs
What are the steps to malignant transformation Initiation; promotion; progression; metastasis
describe initiation DNA is exposed to carcinogen, irreversible changes in DNA (cell appears abmormal but still functions normally)
describe promotion sufficient exposure to an agent (promotor) to encourage / enhance cell growth (latent period before increased growth forms tumors)
describe progression accelerated growth rate, enhanced invasiveness, altered appearance and biochemical activity (tumor development, cells mutate)
describe metastasis transformed cell relocate by direct extension, invasion, establishment of remote sites
How are tumors classified by anatomic site, stage and cell appearance & differentiation
Name benign tumors by anatomic site Fibroma - fibrous connective tissue Lipoma - fat tissue leiomyomas - smooth muscle tissue
name malignant tumors by anatomic site carcinoma - skin, glands, lining of digestive, urinary & respiratory tracts. Sarcoma - bone, muscle, other connective tissue. Melanoma - pigment cells in skin. Leukemia & lymphoma - blood forming tissues; lymphoid tissue; plasma cells, & bone marrow
stage 1 malignant cells are confined to tissue of origin, no invasion of other tissues
stage 2 limited spread of cancer occurs in local area, usually to nearby lymph nodes
stage 3 tumor is larger, has spread from site of origin to nearby tissues, regional lymph nodes are likely to be involved
state 4 cancer has metastasized to distant parts of body, term advanced is also used to describe this stage
TNM Staging system specifies the status of the primary tumor, regional lymph notes, and distant metastases t = tumor n = regional lymph nodes m = distant mestastases
T stages in the TNM staging system TO - no sign of tumor after treatment tis 0 malignancy in epithelial tissue but not basement membrane T1-minimal size and extension T 2 & 3 - progressively increasing in size and extension T4-larg size and extension
N stages in the TNM staging system NO - no regional lymph notes involved N1 - minimal reginal lymph node involvement N2 - increased involvement of regional lymph nodes N3 - extensive involvement of regional lymph nodes
M stages in the TNM staging system MO - no distant metastasis M1 - distant metastasis present
Warning signs of cancer C.A.U.T.I.O.N Changes in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficult swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness
What are radioprotectors Medications that can help to protect the salivery glands as well as mucus producing tissues
Medical term for dry mouth Xerostoma
What is osteradionecrosis Destruction of bone caused by radiation
Side effects of radiation therapy Bone marrow suppression; alopecia summer: anorexia; dry mouth; nausea and vomiting in semi: diarrhea and inflammation of the skin, aesophagus, longs, in bladder
Inflammation of the esophagus is? Esophagitis
Inflammation of the lungs is? Pneumonitis
Inflammation of the bladder is? Cystitis
Sources of a radiation used for therapy include Radioactive forms of iodine, phosphorus,radium, iridium, radon,and cesium
Adjuvant therapy is? used then patient has had surgery or radiotherapy and is free of signs of disease but has a high likelihood of recurrence, chemo is administered to eradicate remaining undetected cells
what is a tumor marker? abnormal proteins on cell surface
what is an example of prophylactically measures having part of colon removed to prevent cancer when familial polyposis has been determined
Neoadjuvant therapy is ? used chemo is used to reduce the extent of tumor before surgery or radiotherapy
intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) a technique in which the tumor/tumor bed is radiated directly during surgery (this is during external radiation)
forms of internal radiation: sealed-source radiation unsealed-source radiation
Effects of bone marrow suppression Anemia; low WBCs, low platelets
What is chemotherapy use of chemical agents in the treatment of disease antineoplastics / anticancer drugs
What is biotherapy agents that work by affecting biologic process: hematopoietic growth factors, BRM, monoclonal antibodies (MAb)
what are hematopoietic growth factors colony-stimulating factors (CSF), used to stimulate the bone marrow to produce RBCs & WBCs
what are BRMs boost the body's existing defenses, act directly on malignant cells, stimulate immune system to act against them
what is Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) use antibodies made in large number in a lab rather than by a person's own immune system, recognize very specific targets/antigens present on certain kinds of cancer cells
what is allogenic transplant receive cells from sibling/relative
what is a matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplant donated from unrelated donor
what is complementary therapy non traditional therapy & conventional therapy used together
Alternative therapy uses non traditional therapy in place of traditional treatment
examples of antiemetics: palonosetron; dolasetron; ondansetron; granisetron *greatly improved management of N/V with chemo....fewer side effects
what is mucositis inflammation of the mucosa may extend from mouth and effect entire intestinal tract . . . painful, can interfere with adequate food intake
what is stomatitis
important facts regarding thrombocytopenia
actions to be taken for Change in bowel or bladder habits ultrasonography and endoscopy
action to be taken for a sore that does not heal biopsy and oral and skin examination
action to be taken for unusual bleeding or discharge in stool rectal exam and colonoscopy
action to be taken for unusual bleeding in between periods gynaec exam for cervix and biopsy
action to be taken for thickening or lump in the breast, testicles, elsewhere ultrasonography and FNAC if abnormal
action taken for indigestion or difficulty swallowing endoscopy
action taken for obvious change in the size of mole, or mouth sore biopsy
actions taken for nagging cough or hoarseness ENT examination and X-ray chest
Created by: arogers74