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Medical-Surgical Nursing

What is an STI? A sexually transmitted infection
What are the 2 STIs that must be reported to the health department in all US states? Gonorrhea and syphilis
What is the best method of protection against an STI? A condom used with water-based lubricant
What are the 2 classifications of STIs? Bacterial and viral
What bacteria causes gonorrhea? Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Describe Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A gram-negative diplococcus
What is the incubation period of gonorrhea? 3-8 days
What STI can cause redness and swelling at the cervix or urethra with a purulent exudate? Gonorrhea
What are signs and symptoms of rectal gonorrhea? Mucopurulent rectal discharge, bleeding, pain, pruritis, and painful bowel movements
What symptom is common if gonorrhea infects the oropharynx? Sore throat
What is associated with a disseminated gonococcal infection (DIC)? Skin lesions, fever, arthralgia, arthritis, and/or endocarditis
Is gonorrhea treated before positive diagnosis? Yes
Which STI, if untreated, can cause of Bartholin's glands in females? Gonorrhea
What is the treatment of Opthalmia neonatorum? Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment (standard for all US births)
What causes ophthalmia neonatorum? Gonococcal conjunctivitis; can cause permanent blindness
True or False: If a patient is positive for gonorrhea, they need to be treated for chlamydia as well. True
What is the most common STI in the US? Chlamydia
Which sex is at greater risk for chlamydia? Women
What bacterium causes chlamydia? Chlamydia trachomatis
Describe chlamydia trachomatis. A gram-negative bacterium
What is the incubation period of chlamydia? 1-3 weeks
Which STI can produce unilateral scrotal pain? Chlamydia
How long should patients abstain from sexual activities after completing treatment for an STI? 7 days
What is a possible long-term complication of epididymis? Infertility
What can occur as a result in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain
What is the preferred method for diagnosing chlamydia? Nucleic acid amplication testing (NAAT)
Where can samples for NAAT be taken from? Endocervical or vaginal swabs, urethral swabs (men), and urine (both)
What parasite causes trichomoniasis? Trichomonas vaginalis
What is the incubation period for trichomoniasis? 1 week-1 month; may be longer
Describe Trichomonas vaginalis. A flagellate protozoan
Which STI causes the cervix, on speculum exam, to have a "strawberry" appearance? Trichomoniasis
What are the 2 strains of virus that cause genital herpes? Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
Which form of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is more common in the genitals? HSV-2
Which form of HSV is associated with oral lesions? HSV-1
What is asymptomatic shedding? The transportation of HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 without any apparent symptoms
What is the incubation period during the primary episode of genital herpes? 2 days-2 weeks
What 3 antivirals are available to treat HSV? Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir
What are the 4 stages of the primary episode of genital herpes?
How long do primary lesions present for in the initial episode of genital herpes? 17-20 days
Which type of HSV infection recurs less frequently: HSV-1 or HSV-2? HSV-1
What is the greatest risk of transmitting genital herpes? When active lesions are present
True or False: An active genital lesion on a pregnant woman is indicative of a C-section. True
What is tabes dorsalis? Progressive locomotor decline characterized by ataxia, areflexia, paresthesias, lightning pains, and damaged joints in the late stage of syphilis
When does neurosyphilis occur? When T. pallidum invades the CNS; can occur with any stage of syphilis
What are 2 lab tests used to diagnose syphilis? Veneral disease research and rapid plasma reagin; will positive 10-14 days after appearance of chancre
What are condylomata acuminata? Genital warts
What causes genital warts? Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Which type of HPV causes genital warts? Types 6 and 11
True or False: Genital HPV infection is considered "transient", True
How long does it usually take genital HPV infection to spontaneously resolve? 1-2 years
How many genital warts do most patients usually have? 1-10
What bacterium causes syphilis? Treponema pallidum
How long is the incubation period of syphilis? 10-90 days (average 21 days)
Which STI is known as the "Great Invader"? Syphilis
What are the 4 stages of syphilis? Primary, secondary, latent, and late
What is a chancre? A painless indurated lesion associated with syphilis
How long after inoculation with syphilis does a chancre occur? 10-90 days
In which stage of syphilis does a rash occur on the trunk, soles, and palms? Secondary
What are condylomata lata? Moist, weeping papules occurring in the anogenital area with syphilis infection
When does syphilis become noninfectious? After 1 year of being in the latent phase (absence of signs and symptoms)
What are gummas? Chronic, destructive lesions affecting any organ of the body with syphilis infection
Created by: shrewsburysd