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Medical-Surgical Nursing

What is HIV? Human immunodeficiency virus
What type of virus is HIV? Retrovirus
What is reverse transcriptase? An enzyme that transforms the RNA of HIV into a single strand of DNA
How does HIV integrate into the host's genetic structure? Through the enzyme integrase
How many stages exist in untreated HIV? 3
What is Stage 1 of HIV infection? Acute HIV infection
What are the signs and symptoms of acute (Stage 1) HIV infection? Within 2-4 weeks of infection, patients experience flu-like illness
What are diagnostic tests to diagnose acute HIV infection? Either a fourth generation antibody/antigen test or a nucleic acid test (NAT)
When are patients with HIV most infectious? During the acute (stage 1) phase
What are possible neurologic complications with acute HIV infection? Aseptic meningitis, peripheral neuropathy, facial palsy, or Guillan-Barre syndrome
What is Stage 2 of HIV infection? Clinical latency (Inactivity or dormancy)
What are signs and symptoms during Stage 2 of HIV infection? Patients are asymptomatic
How long is the interval between initial HIV infection and diagnosis of AIDS in untreated infection? Generally 10 years
What is Stage 3 of HIV infection? Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
What are common signs and symptoms of AIDS? Persistent fever, chills, sweats, swollen lymph nodes, chronic diarrhea, recurrent headaches, weight loss, and severe fatigue
What is the required CD4+ T cell count required by the CDC to diagnose AIDS? Less than 200 cells
How does the enzyme protease affect HIV? It's involved in the replication process of the viral DNA, allowing it to spread
What virus causes Kaposi sarcoma? Human herpesvirus 8
What is a common cancer associated with AIDS? Kaposi sarcoma
How does Kaposi sarcoma appear? As purple, brown, or red tumors (called lesions) on the skin and mucosal surfaces
Do the lesions of Kaposi sarcoma usually cause symptoms? No
If HIV positive, what antigen is produced before antibodies develop? p24
What is the normal range of CD4+ T cells? 800-1200 cells
True or False: No test can detect HIV immediately after exposure. True
Who is more likely to get HIV: A circumcised man or an uncircumcised man? An uncircumcised man
If an HIV-positive woman has an undetectable viral load, can she safely breastfeed? No; her breast milk can still transmit HIV
What is PrEP? Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy to reduce the risk of sexually-acquired HIV in high risk patients
What drugs are used in PrEP? A combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada)
What is PEP? Post-exposure prophylaxis; taking antiretrovirals (ART) after being potentially exposed HIV
When must PEP be started? Within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV
Is PEP 100% effective in preventing HIV? No
What is defined as viral suppression? Having less than 200 copies of HIV per mL of blood
What is lipodystrophy? Changes in body shape r/t a redistribution of fat in the abdomen, upper back, and breasts along with fat loss in the arms, legs, and face
What is the target cell for HIV? CD4+ T cells
What type of cell is the CD4+ T cell? Lymphocyte
What bodily fluids transmit HIV? Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk
What is the most common mode of HIV transmission? Unprotected sexual contact with an HIV-infected partner.
Created by: shrewsburysd