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Microbiology

Hx of Micro

QuestionAnswer
• What is microbiology? Study of Microorganisms ( Microscopic organism) both Unicellular and Multicellular. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, algae etc.
Johannes and Zacharias Jansen Invented what? Compound Microscope Design
• What is the germ theory of disease? Microorganisms were believed to cause diseases and their transmissions/ Robert Koch proved with Postulates.
What is Koch Postulates? Fastidious Organisms can’t be grown in a pure culture / only if certain nutrients are present. Some have immunity to a pathogen so the Host won’t be susceptible.
Linnaeus Created what? Taxonomy
What did Antoni Van discover? Bacteria " animalcules" " beasties Bacteriology Protoozology Mycology(Fungi) Parasitology Phycology
Pasteur (Start of Golden Age) what concept did he discover? Industrial Microbiology Food and Beverage Technology (Pasteurization) Swan Neck Flask Experiment
Buchner discovered what? Microbial metabolism Genetic/ Genetic Engineering
Koch discoverd what concept? Koch's Postulates Etiology
Ivanosky discovered what? Virology
Beijerinck and Winogradskny discovered what? Environmental and Ecological Micro
What did Gram discover? Microbial Morphology
What did Lister and Nightingale establish? Antiseptic Medical Techniquesand /Hospital Microbiology Standard of Hygiene
Jenner/ Von Behring/Kitasato Discovered? Serology/ Immunology
Ehrlich Discovered? Chemotherapy
Fleming Discovered? Pharmaceutical Micro
What is Phycology? Algae
What is Mycology? Fungi
What is Serology? Antibodies in the Blood serum, particularly an indicator of infection.
What is Epidemiology? Freq distribution and spread of disease
What is Etiology? Cause of disease
What is Chemotherapy? Development and use of drugs to treat infectious diseases.
What is Public Health Micro? Sewage tx, water purification, and control of insects and spread of disease.
Jenner observes what? Milk maids infected with cowpox, don't contract smallpox/ inoculated individuals to show protection.
What did Semmelweiss Discover? Implement hand washing to reduce transmissions of disease.
What did John Snow Map and what did he create in the process? Cholera, and two branches of Micro: Epidemiology and Infection Control
What is Spontaneous Generation? Living organisms can originate from non-living organisms
What are the proponents of Spontaneous Generation? Fresh air was necessary for it to occur
What Opposed Spontaneous Generation? Boiling a sealed flask with nutrient solution, effectively sterilized contents and prevented further contamination
What is Pasteur's Experiment? Infusion of heat steam escapes from the open end of the flask infusion sits/ no microbes appear months : air moves in and out of flasks infusion remains sterile indefinitely dust from air settles in bend
What is the Pasteurization Technique? Developed Vaccines for rabies, anthrax and cholera
What is Commensal Microbe of Koch's Postulates? Part of a helathy host microflora and may become opportunistic if pathogen immunity is compromised or distrubed. Ex: Yeast Infections arn't deadly but they are if you have AIDS
What are some limitations to Koch's Postulates? Ethical Consideration
Who discovered the structure of DNA and some recombinant genetics methods in E. Coli and other microbes? Rosalind Franklin and Watson/ Crick
Who discovered Archaea? Carl Woese and George Fox
Who discovered Prions and bacterial genomes/eukaryotic genomes? Stanley Prusiner
What are the 6 categorys that Leewenhoek Discoverd? bacteria archaea fungi protozoa algae small multicellular animals
Why did he Leewenhoek not put Viruses on his list? Viruses are so small that they need an electron microscope
What is the Cells Structure of Bacteria? Cells Lack nuclei Not surrounded by a membrane (Polysaccharides) cell wall is contains Peptidoglycans Smaller than Eukaryotic Cells
Bacteria usually travel? in clusters ( pairs)/ or single
Where does Bacteria derive nutrition? from organic and inorganic sources or conduct photosynthesis
When is Archaea present? Extreme Environments and not assoc. with human disease.
Bacteria can produce in what type? Asexually: offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
What type of cell is Fungi? Eukaryotic
What is the cellular structure of Fungi? Unicellular and Multicellular - communication to one cell or in one cell and multi is multiple cells or systems contains: Nucleus , genetic material, by a distinct membrane Multicellular have long filaments intertwine sexual/asexual spores
How does Fungi get nutrition? from other organisms cell walls
What are the diff. type of Fungi ? Molds and Yeasts
What is the cell structure of Yeast? Unicellular,oval- round
How does Yeast Reproduce? Asexually by budding Daughter cells grows off the mother cells
What is a Facultative Anaerobes? Can live with or w/o oxygen
Yeast can help with what Symptoms? Diarrhea and Colitis
What are Beneficial Microbes? Bread Wine Beer Saccharomyces Cerevisia cause bread to rise and prodcues alcohol from sugar
What is Candida Albicans? Yeast infection woman get
Can Viruses survive outside of a Host cell? NO
What is the cell structure of Protozoa? Single cell /Eukaryotes
How does Protozoa get nutrition? Similiar to animals
How does the Protozoa move? Locomotion: Cilia(Beats) and Flagella ( Whiplike)
How does Algae get its nutrition? Carbon Dioxide and using energy from the sunlight
How can you identify Algae? Pigmentation of the cell walls
What are some large Algaes? Seaweed and Kelp
What does Unicellular Algae make up most in the world? Fresh water ponds> most of the world oxygen (Photosynthesis) Streams Lakes
Where is the Parasitic Worm Found? Blood- Fecal- Urine- and Lymph Specimens
What are the influenzavirus characteristics? Replicates in nucleus small virus RNA Virus Simple
How would you most likely get Small Pox Coughing and Sneezing
What does Coccus mean? Spherical in shape organisms
What does Aureus mean? Golden
What is Francesco Redi's Experiment? Decaying meat kept isolated from flies Meat Exposed to flies> Was soon infested w/maggots adopt new view: animals only come from other animals
When arn't antibiotics effective? in txing viral infections
What are two limitations with antibiotics? Anitbiotics may be toxic Tx with antibiotics can lead to EC of Resistant Strains
What are the 6 steps to Scientific Method? 1.OBSERVE a natural phenomenon Rxn 2.Devise and EXPLANATION of what you OBSERVED 3.EXPERIMENT to refute or supp. your explanation 4.RECORD the results of EXPERIMENTS 5.DETERMINE whether your RESULTS supp/refute explanation 6.DECIDE to rewrite EXPL.
Created by: aphastings